Responsive Design

Responsive web design

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Responsive web design (RWD) is an approach to web design aimed at crafting sites to provide an optimal viewing experience—easy reading and navigation with a minimum of resizing, panning, and scrolling—across a wide range of devices (from desktop computer monitors to mobile phones).[1][2][3]

A site designed with RWD[1][4] adapts the layout to the viewing environment by using fluid, proportion-based grids,[5][6] flexible images,[7][8][9] and CSS3 media queries,[3][10][11] an extension of the @media rule, in the following ways:[12]

  • The fluid grid concept calls for page element sizing to be in relative units like percentages, rather than absolute units like pixels or points.[6]
  • Flexible images are also sized in relative units, so as to prevent them from displaying outside their containing element.[7]
  • Media queries allow the page to use different CSS style rules based on characteristics of the device the site is being displayed on, most commonly the width of the browser.

Related concepts

Mobile first, unobtrusive JavaScript, and progressive enhancement

“Mobile first”, unobtrusive JavaScript, and progressive enhancement are related concepts that predate RWD. Browsers of basic mobile phones do not understand JavaScript or media queries, so a recommended practice is to create a basic web site and enhance it for smart phones and PCs, rather than rely on graceful degradation to make a complex, image-heavy site work on mobile phones.[13][14][15][16]

Progressive enhancement based on browser-, device-, or feature-detection

Where a web site must support basic mobile devices that lack JavaScript, browser (“user agent”) detection (also called “browser sniffing“), and mobile device detection[14][17] are two ways of deducing if certain HTML and CSS features are supported (as a basis for progressive enhancement)—however, these methods are not completely reliable unless used in conjunction with a device capabilities database.

For more capable mobile phones and PCs, JavaScript frameworks like Modernizr, jQuery, and jQuery Mobile that can directly test browser support for HTML/CSS features (or identify the device or user agent) are popular.Polyfills can be used to add support for features—e.g. to support media queries (required for RWD), and enhance HTML5 support, on Internet Explorer. Feature detection also might not be completely reliable: some may report that a feature is available, when it is either missing or so poorly implemented that it is effectively nonfunctional.[18][19]

Challenges, and other approaches

Luke Wroblewski has summarized some of the RWD and mobile design challenges, and created a catalog of multi-device layout patterns.[20][21][22] He suggests that, compared with a simple RWD approach, device experience or RESS (responsive web design with server-side components) approaches can provide a user experience that is better optimized for mobile devices.[23][24][25] Server-side “dynamic CSS” implementation of stylesheet languages like Sass or Incentivated’s MML can be part of such an approach by accessing a server based API which handles the device (typically mobile handset) differences in conjunction with a device capabilities database in order to improve usability.[26] RESS is more expensive to develop, requiring more than just client-side logic, and so tends to be reserved for organizations with larger budgets. Google recommends responsive design for smartphone websites over other approaches.[27]

Although many publishers are starting to implement responsive designs, one ongoing challenge for RWD is that some banner advertisements and videos are not fluid.[28] However, search advertising and (banner) display advertising support specific device platform targeting and different advertisement size formats for desktop, smartphone, and basic mobile devices. Different landing page URLs can be used for different platforms,[29] orAjax can be used to display different advertisement variants on a page.[17][21][30] CSS tables permit hybrid fixed+fluid layouts.[31]

There are now many ways of validating and testing RWD designs,[32] ranging from mobile site validators and mobile emulators[33] to simultaneous testing tools like Adobe Edge Inspect.[34] The Firefox browser and the Chrome console offer responsive design viewport resizing tools, as do third parties.[35][36]

History

A site layout example that adapts to browser viewport width was first demonstrated by Cameron Adams in 2004.[37] By 2008, a number of related terms such as “flexible”, “liquid”,[38] “fluid”, and “elastic” were being used to describe layouts. CSS3 media queries were almost ready for prime time in late 2008/early 2009.[39] Ethan Marcotte coined the term responsive web design [40] (RWD)—and defined it to mean fluid grid/ flexible images/ media queries—in a May 2010 article in A List Apart.[1] He described the theory and practice of responsive web design in his brief 2011 book titled Responsive Web Design. Responsive design was listed as #2 in Top Web Design Trends for 2012 by .net magazine[41] after progressive enhancement at #1.

Mashable called 2013 the Year of Responsive Web Design.[42] Many other sources have recommended responsive design as a cost-effective alternative to mobile applications.

Forbes featured a piece, ‘Why You Need To Prioritize Responsive Design Now’ [43] where the importance was made clear that having a mobile version of your website isn’t enough anymore. Jody Resnick, President ofTrighton Interactive stated in his interview with Forbes, “Responsive websites simplify internet marketing and SEO. Instead of having to develop and manage content for multiple websites, businesses with responsive sites can take a unified approach to content management because they have only the one responsive site to manage.

Resnick predicts, “As the internet transforms further into a platform of services and user interfaces that tie those services together, leveraging this technology in the future will allow companies to integrate a plethora of back-end services, such as Facebook, Twitter, Salesforce.com, and Amazon Web Services, and then present the integrated data back out the front-end iad layer on a responsive design so the application looks great on all devices without custom coding needed for each device or screen size.”

Some believe that responsive design will be more prevalent than native apps simply because of the browser compatibility and the cost associated with programming the apps.

See also

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c Marcotte, Ethan (May 25, 2010). “Responsive Web design”. A List Apart.
  2. Jump up^ “Ethan Marcotte’s 20 favourite responsive sites”. .net magazine. October 11, 2011.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b Gillenwater, Zoe Mickley (Dec 15, 2010). “Examples of flexible layouts with CSS3 media queries”. Stunning CSS3. p. 320.ISBN 978-0-321-722133.
  4. Jump up^ Pettit, Nick (Aug 8, 2012). “Beginner’s Guide to Responsive Web Design”. TeamTreehouse.com blog.
  5. Jump up^ “Core concepts of Responsive Web design”. Sep 8, 2014.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b Marcotte, Ethan (March 3, 2009). “Fluid Grids”. A List Apart.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Marcotte, Ethan (June 7, 2011). “Fluid images”. A List Apart.
  8. Jump up^ Hannemann, Anselm (Sep 7, 2012). “The road to responsive images”. net Magazine.
  9. Jump up^ Jacobs, Denise (April 24, 2012). “50 fantastic tools for responsive web design”. .net Magazine.
  10. Jump up^ Gillenwater, Zoe Mickley (Oct 21, 2011). “Crafting quality media queries”.
  11. Jump up^ “Responsive design—harnessing the power of media queries”. Google Webmaster Central. Apr 30, 2012.
  12. Jump up^ W3C @media rule
  13. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (November 3, 2009). “Mobile First”.
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b Firtman, Maximiliano (July 30, 2010). Programming the Mobile Web. p. 512. ISBN 978-0-596-80778-8.
  15. Jump up^ “Graceful degradation versus progressive enhancement”. February 3, 2009.
  16. Jump up^ Designing with Progressive Enhancement. March 1, 2010. p. 456. ISBN 978-0-321-65888-3.
  17. ^ Jump up to:a b “Server-Side Device Detection: History, Benefits And How-To”. Smashing magazine. September 24, 2012.
  18. Jump up^ “BlackBerry Torch: The HTML5 Developer Scorecard | Blog”. Sencha. 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
  19. Jump up^ “Motorola Xoom: The HTML5 Developer Scorecard | Blog”. Sencha. 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
  20. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (May 17, 2011). “Mobilism: jQuery Mobile”.
  21. ^ Jump up to:a b Wroblewski, Luke (February 6, 2012). “Rolling Up Our Responsive Sleeves”.
  22. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (March 14, 2012). “Multi-Device Layout Patterns”.
  23. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (February 29, 2012). “Responsive Design … or RESS”.
  24. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (September 12, 2011). “RESS: Responsive Design + Server Side Components”.
  25. Jump up^ Andersen, Anders (May 9, 2012). “Getting Started with RESS”.
  26. Jump up^ “Responsive but not completely mobile optimised | Blog”. Incentivated.
  27. Jump up^ “Building Smartphone-Optimized Websites”. Google.
  28. Jump up^ Snyder, Matthew; Koren, Etai (Apr 30, 2012). “The state of responsive advertising: the publishers’ perspective”. .net Magazine.
  29. Jump up^ Google AdWords Targeting (Device Platform Targeting)
  30. Jump up^ JavaScript and Responsive Web DesignGoogle Developers
  31. Jump up^ Table Layouts in RWD
  32. Jump up^ Young, James (Aug 13, 2012). “Top responsive web design problems… testing”. .net Magazine.
  33. Jump up^ “Best mobile emulators and RWD testing tools”. The Mobile Web Design Blog. Nov 26, 2011.
  34. Jump up^ Rinaldi, Brian (September 26, 2012). “Browser testing… with Adobe Edge Inspect”.
  35. Jump up^ Responsive Design View in Firefox
  36. Jump up^ Viewport resizer
  37. Jump up^ Adams, Cameron (September 21, 2004). “Resolution dependent layout: Varying layout according to browser width”. The Man in Blue.
  38. Jump up^ CSS2 Liquid layout discussion
  39. Jump up^ CSS3 Media Queries Candidate Recommendation
  40. Jump up^ http://outseller.net/2015s-professional-responsive-web-design-offer-businesses/
  41. Jump up^ “15 top web design and development trends for 2012”. .net magazine. January 9, 2012.
  42. Jump up^ Cashmore, Pete (Dec 11, 2012). “Why 2013 Is the Year of Responsive Web Design”.
  43. Jump up^ Gunelius, Susan (March 13, 2013). “Why You Need To Prioritize Responsive Design Now”.

eCommerce Web Design

eCommerce

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Electronic commerce, commonly known as eCommerce, is trading in products or services using computer networks, such as the Internet. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web for at least one part of the transaction’s life cycle, although it may also use other technologies such as e-mail.

E-commerce businesses may employ some or all of the following:

  • Online shopping web sites for retail sales direct to consumers
  • Providing or participating in online marketplaces, which process third-party business-to-consumer or consumer-to-consumer sales
  • Business-to-business buying and selling
  • Gathering and using demographic data through web contacts and social media
  • Business-to-business electronic data interchange
  • Marketing to prospective and established customers by e-mail or fax (for example, with newsletters)
  • Engaging in pretail for launching new products and services

Timeline

A timeline for the development of e-commerce:

Business applications

An example of an automated online assistant on a merchandising website.

Some common applications related to electronic commerce are:

Governmental regulation

In the United States, some electronic commerce activities are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). These activities include the use of commercial e-mails, online advertising and consumer privacy. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 establishes national standards for direct marketing over e-mail. The Federal Trade Commission Act regulates all forms of advertising, including online advertising, and states that advertising must be truthful and non-deceptive.[27] Using its authority under Section 5 of the FTC Act, which prohibits unfair or deceptive practices, the FTC has brought a number of cases to enforce the promises in corporate privacy statements, including promises about the security of consumers’ personal information.[28] As result, any corporate privacy policy related to e-commerce activity may be subject to enforcement by the FTC.

The Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008, which came into law in 2008, amends the Controlled Substances Act to address online pharmacies.[29]

There is also collaboration between Google and US federal authorities to block illegal online pharmacies from appearing in Google search results.[30] Recently FedEx Corporation pleaded not guilty to charges made against it regarding dealing with illegal online pharmacies.[31]

Conflict of laws in cyberspace [32] is a major hurdle for harmonisation of legal framework for e-commerce around the world. In order to give a uniformity to e-commerce law around the world, many countries adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996) [33]

Internationally there is the International Consumer Protection and Enforcement Network (ICPEN), which was formed in 1991 from an informal network of government customer fair trade organisations. The purpose was stated as being to find ways of co-operating on tackling consumer problems connected with cross-border transactions in both goods and services, and to help ensure exchanges of information among the participants for mutual benefit and understanding. From this came Econsumer.gov, an ICPEN initiative since April 2001. It is a portal to report complaints about online and related transactions with foreign companies.

There is also Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was established in 1989 with the vision of achieving stability, security and prosperity for the region through free and open trade and investment. APEC has an Electronic Commerce Steering Group as well as working on common privacy regulations throughout the APEC region.

In Australia, Trade is covered under Australian Treasury Guidelines for electronic commerce,[34] and the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission[35] regulates and offers advice on how to deal with businesses online,[36][37] and offers specific advice on what happens if things go wrong.[38]

In the United Kingdom, The Financial Services Authority (FSA)[39] was formerly the regulating authority for most aspects of the EU’s Payment Services Directive (PSD), until its replacement in 2013 by the Prudential Regulation Authority and the Financial Conduct Authority.[40] The UK implemented the PSD through the Payment Services Regulations 2009 (PSRs), which came into effect on 1 November 2009. The PSR affects firms providing payment services and their customers. These firms include banks, non-bank credit card issuers and non-bank merchant acquirers, e-money issuers, etc. The PSRs created a new class of regulated firms known as payment institutions (PIs), who are subject to prudential requirements. Article 87 of the PSD requires the European Commission to report on the implementation and impact of the PSD by 1 November 2012.[41]

In India, the Information Technology Act 2000 governs the basic applicability of e-commerce. It is based upon UNCITRAL Model but is not a comprehensive legislation to deal with e-commerce related activities in India. Further, e-commerce laws and regulations in India [42] are also supplemented by different laws of India as applicable to the field of e-commerce. For instance, e-commerce relating to pharmaceuticals, healthcare, traveling, etc. are governed by different laws though the information technology act, 2000 prescribes some common requirements for all these fields. The competition commission of India (CCI) regulates anti competition and anti trade practices in e-commerce fields in India.[43] Some stakeholders have decided to approach courts and CCI against e-commerce websites to file complaint about unfair trade practices and predatory pricing by such e-commerce websites.[44][45]

Forms

Contemporary electronic commerce involves everything from ordering “digital” content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to “meta” services to facilitate other types of electronic commerce.

On the institutional level, big corporations and financial institutions use the internet to exchange financial data to facilitate domestic and international business. Data integrity and security are very hot and pressing issues for electronic commerce.

Aside from traditional e-Commerce, m-Commerce as well as the nascent t-Commerce[46] channels are often seen as the current 2013 poster children of electronic I-Commerce.

Global trends

In 2010, the United Kingdom had the biggest e-commerce market in the world when measured by the amount spent per capita.[47] The Czech Republic is the European country where ecommerce delivers the biggest contribution to the enterprises´ total revenue. Almost a quarter (24%) of the country’s total turnover is generated via the online channel.[48]

Among emerging economies, China’s e-commerce presence continues to expand every year. With 384 million internet users, China’s online shopping sales rose to $36.6 billion in 2009 and one of the reasons behind the huge growth has been the improved trust level for shoppers. The Chinese retailers have been able to help consumers feel more comfortable shopping online.[49] China’s cross-border e-commerce is also growing rapidly. E-commerce transactions between China and other countries increased 32% to 2.3 trillion yuan ($375.8 billion) in 2012 and accounted for 9.6% of China’s total international trade [50] In 2013, Alibaba had an e-commerce market share of 80% in China.[51]

Other BRIC countries are witnessing the accelerated growth of eCommerce as well. Brazil’s eCommerce is growing quickly with retail eCommerce sales expected to grow at a healthy double-digit pace through 2014. By 2016, eMarketer expects retail ecommerce sales in Brazil to reach $17.3 billion.[52] India has an internet user base of about 243.2 million as of January 2014. Despite being third largest userbase in world, the penetration of Internet is low compared to markets like the United States, United Kingdom or France but is growing at a much faster rate, adding around 6 million new entrants every month. The industry consensus is that growth is at an inflection point. In India, cash on delivery is the most preferred payment method, accumulating 75% of the e-retail activities.

E-Commerce has become an important tool for small and large businesses worldwide, not only to sell to customers, but also to engage them.[53][54]

In 2012, ecommerce sales topped $1 trillion for the first time in history.[55]

Mobile devices are playing an increasing role in the mix of eCommerce. Some estimates show that purchases made on mobile devices will make up 25% of the market by 2017.[56] According to Cisco Visual Networking Index,[57] in 2014 the amount of mobile devices will outnumber the number of world population.

Impact on markets and retailers

Economists have theorized that e-commerce ought to lead to intensified price competition, as it increases consumers’ ability to gather information about products and prices. Research by four economists at the University of Chicago has found that the growth of online shopping has also affected industry structure in two areas that have seen significant growth in e-commerce, bookshops and travel agencies. Generally, larger firms are able to useeconomies of scale and offer lower prices. The lone exception to this pattern has been the very smallest category of bookseller, shops with between one and four employees, which appear to have withstood the trend.[58]

Individual or business involved in e-commerce whether buyers or sellers rely on Internet-based technology in order to accomplish their transactions. E-commerce is recognized for its ability to allow business to communicate and to form transaction anytime and anyplace. Whether an individual is in the US or overseas, business can be conducted through the internet. The power of e-commerce allows geophysical barriers to disappear, making all consumers and businesses on earth potential customers and suppliers. eBay is a good example of e-commerce business individuals and businesses are able to post their items and sell them around the Globe.[59]

Distribution channels

E-commerce has grown in importance as companies have adopted pure-click and brick-and-click channel systems. We can distinguish pure-click and brick-and-click channel system adopted by companies.

  • Pure-click or pure-play companies are those that have launched a website without any previous existence as a firm.
  • Bricks-and-clicks companies are those existing companies that have added an online site for e-commerce.
  • Click-to-brick online retailers that later open physical locations to supplement their online efforts.[60]

Examples of new E-commerce system

According to eMarketer research company, “by 2017, 65.8 per cent of Britons will use smartphones”. (cited by Williams, 2014)

Bringing online experience into the real world, allows also the development of the economy and the interaction between stores and customers. A great example of this new e-commerce system is what the Burberry store in London did in 2012. They refurbished the entire store with numerous big screens, photo-studios, and also provided a stage for live acts. Moreover, on the digital screens which are across the store, some fashion shows´ images and advertising campaigns are displayed. (William, 2014) In this way, the experience of purchasing becomes more vivid and entertaining while the online and offline components are working together. Another example could be Kiddicare smartphone app, in which costumers can compare prices against adversaries. Moreover, the app allows people to know where the sale products are and to check whether the item they are looking for is in stock or if they have to ask for it online without going to the `real´ store. (William, 2014) In the United States, Walmart app in which you can check the product availability and prices both online and offline. Moreover, you can also add to your shopping list items by scanning them, see their details and information, and check purchasers´ ratings and reviews.

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Power, Michael ‘Mike’ (19 April 2013). “Online highs are old as the net: the first e-commerce was a drugs deal”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  2. Jump up^ Tkacz, Ewaryst; Kapczynski, Adrian (2009). Internet — Technical Development and Applications. Springer. p. 255. ISBN 978-3-642-05018-3. Retrieved 28 March 2011. The first pilot system was installing in Tesco in the UK (first demonstrated in 1979 by Michael Aldrich).
  3. Jump up^ 1988 Palmer.C Using IT for competitive advantage at Thomson Holidays, Long range Planning Vol 21 No.6 p26-29, Institute of Strategic Studies Journal,London- Pergamon Press [now Elsevier.B.V.] December 1988.
  4. Jump up^ [ht:tp://www.studymode.com/essays/E-Commerce-1554293.html “E Commerce – Essays – Hpandurang92”]. Study mode. Retrieved 17 June2013.
  5. Jump up^ “Online shopping: The pensioner who pioneered a home shopping revolution”. BBC News. 16 September 2013.
  6. Jump up^ Aldrich, Michael. “Finding Mrs Snowball”. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  7. Jump up^ “The Electronic Mall”. GS Brown. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  8. Jump up^ “Tim Berners-Lee: WorldWideWeb, the first Web client”. W3. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  9. Jump up^ Snider, J.H.; Ziporyn, Terra (1992). Future Shop: How New Technologies Will Change the Way We Shop and What We Buy. St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 978-0-312-06359-7. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  10. Jump up^ “AppWrapper Volume 1 Issue 3 Ships” (press release).
  11. Jump up^ http://news.cnet.com/E-commerce-turns-10/2100-1023_3-5304683.html
  12. Jump up^ Kevin, Kelly (August 2005), “We Are the Web”, Wired 13(8)
  13. Jump up^ “FIrst Electronic Stamps Being Put to Test”.Sunday Business. 6 April 1998. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  14. Jump up^ “eBay acquires PayPal”. Investor. eBay. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  15. Jump up^ “Diane Wang: Rounding up the “Ant” Heroes”. Sino Foreign Management. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
  16. Jump up^ “R.H. Donnelley Acquires Business.com for $345M”. Domain Name Wire. Retrieved 4 September2011.
  17. Jump up^ “Amazon Buys Zappos; The Price is $928m, not $847m”. TechCrunch. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  18. Jump up^ Ahmed, Saqib Iqbal (27 October 2009). “GSI Commerce to buy Retail Convergence for $180 mln”. Reuters. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  19. Jump up^ “Groupon rejects Google’s $6 billion offer”.MS‐NBC. MSN. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  20. Jump up^ “Groupon’s IPO biggest by U.S. Web company since Google”. Reuters. 4 November 2011. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  21. Jump up^ “Amazon buys Diapers.com parent in $545 mln deal”. MarketWatch. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  22. Jump up^ “eBay Acquires GSI Commerce For $2.4 Billion in Cash And Debt”. TechCrunch. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  23. Jump up^ “2013 Holiday Season U.S. Desktop E-Commerce Spending Reaches Record $46.5 Billion, Up 10 Percent vs. Year Ago”. 7 January 2014. Retrieved27 August 2014.
  24. Jump up^ Duryee, Tricia (2014-03-04). “Overstock hits $1 million in sales from virtual currency”. Geekwire. Retrieved 2014-05-07.
  25. Jump up^ Laus, Petronela (8 January 2014). “India Weighs FDI In E-Commerce”. The Wall Street Journal India.
  26. Jump up^ “US eCommerce Forecast: 2013 to 2018”. Forrester Research.
  27. Jump up^ “Advertising and Marketing on the Internet: Rules of the Road”. Federal Trade Commission.
  28. Jump up^ “Enforcing Privacy Promises: Section 5 of the FTC Act”. Federal Trade Commission.
  29. Jump up^ “H.R. 6353: Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008”. Govtrack.
  30. Jump up^ “Illegal Online Pharmacies Are On Hit List Of Google And Federal Authorities Of US”. Exclusive Techno Legal Centre Of Excellence For Cyber Crimes Investigation In India. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  31. Jump up^ “FedEx Corporation Pleaded Not Guilty To U.S. Charges Of Delivering Prescribed Drugs From Illegal Internet Pharmacies”. E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  32. Jump up^ “Conflict Of Laws In Cyberspace, Internet And Computer Era”. Conflict Of Laws In Cyberspace, Internet And Computer Era. 9 October 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  33. Jump up^ “UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996)”. UNCITRAL. 12 June 1996. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  34. Jump up^ “Australian Treasury Guidelines for electronic commerce”. Australian Federal Government.
  35. Jump up^ “Australian Competition and Consumer Commission”. Australian Federal Government.
  36. Jump up^ “Dealing with Businesses Online in Australia”. Australian Federal Government.
  37. Jump up^ “Australian government ecommerce website”. Australian Federal Government.
  38. Jump up^ “What to do if thing go wrong in Australia”. Australian Federal Government.
  39. Jump up^ “FSA”. UK.
  40. Jump up^ George Parker and Brooke Masters (16 June 2010). “Osborne abolishes FSA and boosts Bank”. Financial Times.
  41. Jump up^ “The Payment Services Regulations 2009”. UK: Legislation. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  42. Jump up^ “E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India”. Online Business, E-Business And E-Tailing Laws And Regulations In India And E-Commerce Laws And Regulations In India. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  43. Jump up^ “India Should Regulate Taxation, Anti Competitive Practices And Predatory Pricing Of Indian And Foreign E-Commerce Websites”. E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  44. Jump up^ “FPBAI Questions The Predatory Pricing Tactics Of E-Commerce Websites Of India”. E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  45. Jump up^ “CAIT to launch nationwide protest against online retail cos”.Business Standard. 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  46. Jump up^ Hacon, Tom. “T-Commerce – What the tablet can do for brands and their consumers”. Governor Technology. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
  47. Jump up^ Robinson, James (28 October 2010). “UK’s internet industry worth £100bn”. The Guardian (report) (London). Retrieved 21 December2012.
  48. Jump up^ Eurostat (18 June 2013). “Ecommerce contribution in Europe” (infographic). Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  49. Jump up^ Olsen, Robert (18 January 2010). “China’s migration to eCommerce”. Forbes.
  50. Jump up^ Tong, Frank (16 September 2013). “China’s cross-border e-commerce tops $375 billion in 2012”. Internet Retailer.
  51. Jump up^ Steven Millward (17 September 2014). “Here are all the must-see numbers on Alibaba ahead of record-breaking IPO”.Tech In Asia. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  52. Jump up^ “More Buyers Join Brazil’s Robust Ecommerce Market”. eMarketer.
  53. Jump up^ Eisingerich, Andreas B.; Kretschmer, Tobias (March 2008). “In E-Commerce, More is More”. Harvard Business Review 86: 20–21.
  54. Jump up^ Burgess, S; Sellitto, C; Karanasios, S (2009), Effective Web Presence Solutions for Small Businesses: Strategies and Successful Implementation, IGI Global
  55. Jump up^ “Ecommerce Sales Topped $1 Trillion for First Time in 2012”. eMarketer. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
  56. Jump up^ Enright, Allison. “Top 500 U.S. E-Retailers — U.S. e-commerce sales could top $434 billion in 2017”. Internet Retailer. Retrieved 2014-05-30.
  57. Jump up^ “Cisco Visual Networking Index”.
  58. Jump up^ “Economics focus: The click and the dead”. The Economist. 3–9 July 2010. p. 78.
  59. Jump up^ O’Brien, A. J. & Marakas, M. G. (2011). Management Information Systems. 10e. New York: NY
  60. Jump up^ (Gap Inc/The) (2013-07-10). “Click-to-Brick: Why Online Retailers Want Stores in Real Life”. Business week. Retrieved 2014-05-30.

Small Business Web Design

Web design

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The different areas of web design include web graphic design; interface design; authoring, including standardised code and proprietary software; user experience design; and search engine optimization. Often many individuals will work in teams covering different aspects of the design process, although some designers will cover them all.[1] The term web design is normally used to describe the design process relating to the front-end (client side) design of a website including writing mark up. Web design partially overlaps web engineering in the broader scope of web development. Web designers are expected to have an awareness of usability and if their role involves creating mark up then they are also expected to be up to date with web accessibility guidelines.

History

Web design books in a store

1988—2001

Although web design has a fairly recent history, it can be linked to other areas such as graphic design. However web design can also be seen from a technological standpoint. It has become a large part of people’s everyday lives. It is hard to imagine the Internet without animated graphics, different styles of typography, background and music.

The start of the web and web design

In 1989, whilst working at CERN Tim Berners-Lee proposed to create a global hypertext project, which later became known as the World Wide Web. During 1991 to 1993 the World Wide Web was born. Text-only pages could be viewed using a simple line-mode browser.[2] In 1993 Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina, created the Mosaic browser. At the time there were multiple browsers, however the majority of them were Unix-based and naturally text heavy. There had been no integrated approach to graphic design elements such as images or sounds. The Mosaic browser broke this mould.[3] The W3C was created in October 1994 to “lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its interoperability.”[4] This discouraged any one company from monopolizing a propriety browser and programming language, which could have altered the effect of the World Wide Web as a whole. The W3C continues to set standards, which can today be seen with JavaScript. In 1994 Andreessen formed Communications Corp. that later became known as Netscape Communications, the Netscape 0.9 browser. Netscape created its own HTML tags without regard to the traditional standards process. For example, Netscape 1.1 included tags for changing background colours and formatting text with tables on web pages. Throughout 1996 to 1999 the browser wars began, as Microsoft and Netscape fought for ultimate browser dominance. During this time there were many new technologies in the field, notably Cascading Style Sheets,JavaScript, and Dynamic HTML. On the whole, the browser competition did lead to many positive creations and helped web design evolve at a rapid pace.[5]

Evolution of web design

In 1996, Microsoft released its first competitive browser, which was complete with its own features and tags. It was also the first browser to support style sheets, which at the time was seen as an obscure authoring technique.[5] The HTML markup for tables was originally intended for displaying tabular data. However designers quickly realized the potential of using HTML tables for creating the complex, multi-column layouts that were otherwise not possible. At this time, as design and good aesthetics seemed to take precedence over good mark-up structure, and little attention was paid to semantics and web accessibility. HTML sites were limited in their design options, even more so with earlier versions of HTML. To create complex designs, many web designers had to use complicated table structures or even use blank spacer .GIF images to stop empty table cells from collapsing.[6] CSS was introduced in December 1996 by the W3C to support presentation and layout. This allowed HTML code to be semantic rather than both semantic and presentational, and improved web accessibility, see tableless web design.

In 1996, Flash (originally known as FutureSplash) was developed. At the time, the Flash content development tool was relatively simple compared to now, using basic layout and drawing tools, a limited precursor toActionScript, and a timeline, but it enabled web designers to go beyond the point of HTML, animated GIFs and JavaScript. However, because Flash required a plug-in, many web developers avoided using it for fear of limiting their market share due to lack of compatibility. Instead, designers reverted to gif animations (if they didn’t forego using motion graphics altogether) and JavaScript for widgets. But the benefits of Flash made it popular enough among specific target markets to eventually work its way to the vast majority of browsers, and powerful enough to be used to develop entire sites.[6]

End of the first browser wars

During 1998 Netscape released Netscape Communicator code under an open source licence, enabling thousands of developers to participate in improving the software. However, they decided to start from the beginning, which guided the development of the open source browser and soon expanded to a complete application platform.[5] The Web Standards Project was formed and promoted browser compliance with HTML and CSSstandards by creating Acid1, Acid2, and Acid3 tests. 2000 was a big year for Microsoft. Internet Explorer was released for Mac; this was significant as it was the first browser that fully supported HTML 4.01 and CSS 1, raising the bar in terms of standards compliance. It was also the first browser to fully support the PNG image format.[5] During this time Netscape was sold to AOL and this was seen as Netscape’s official loss to Microsoft in the browser wars.[5]

2001—2012

Since the start of the 21st century the web has become more and more integrated into peoples lives. As this has happened the technology of the web has also moved on. There have also been significant changes in the way people use and access the web, and this has changed how sites are designed.

Modern browsers

Since the end of the browsers wars there have been new browsers coming onto the scene. Many of these are open source meaning that they tend to have faster development and are more supportive of new standards. The new options are considered by many to be better than Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.

New standards

The W3C has released new standards for HTML (HTML5) and CSS (CSS3), as well as new JavaScript API’s, each as a new but individual standard. However, while the term HTML5 is only used to refer to the new version of HTML and some of the JavaScript API’s, it has become common to use it to refer to the entire suite of new standards (HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript).

Tools and technologies

Web designers use a variety of different tools depending on what part of the production process they are involved in. These tools are updated over time by newer standards and software but the principles behind them remain the same. Web graphic designers use vector and raster graphics packages to create web-formatted imagery or design prototypes. Technologies used to create websites include standardised mark-up, which can be hand-coded or generated by WYSIWYG editing software. There is also proprietary software based on plug-ins that bypasses the client’s browser versions. These are often WYSIWYG but with the option of using the software’s scripting language. Search engine optimisation tools may be used to check search engine ranking and suggest improvements.

Other tools web designers might use include mark up validators[7] and other testing tools for usability and accessibility to ensure their web sites meet web accessibility guidelines.[8]

Skills and techniques

Marketing and communication design

Marketing and communication design on a website may identify what works for its target market. This can be an age group or particular strand of culture; thus the designer may understand the trends of its audience. Designers may also understand the type of website they are designing, meaning, for example, that (B2B) business-to-business website design considerations might differ greatly from a consumer targeted website such as aretail or entertainment website. Careful consideration might be made to ensure that the aesthetics or overall design of a site do not clash with the clarity and accuracy of the content or the ease of web navigation,[9]especially on a B2B website. Designers may also consider the reputation of the owner or business the site is representing to make sure they are portrayed favourably.

User experience design and interactive design

User understanding of the content of a website often depends on user understanding of how the website works. This is part of the user experience design. User experience is related to layout, clear instructions and labeling on a website. How well a user understands how they can interact on a site may also depend on the interactive design of the site. If a user perceives the usefulness of the website, they are more likely to continue using it. Users who are skilled and well versed with website use may find a more unique, yet less intuitive or less user-friendly website interface useful nonetheless. However, users with less experience are less likely to see the advantages or usefulness of a less intuitive website interface. This drives the trend for a more universal user experience and ease of access to accommodate as many users as possible regardless of user skill.[10] Much of the user experience design and interactive design are considered in the user interface design.

Advanced interactive functions may require plug-ins if not advanced coding language skills. Choosing whether or not to use interactivity that requires plug-ins is a critical decision in user experience design. If the plug-in doesn’t come pre-installed with most browsers, there’s a risk that the user will have neither the know how or the patience to install a plug-in just to access the content. If the function requires advanced coding language skills, it may be too costly in either time or money to code compared to the amount of enhancement the function will add to the user experience. There’s also a risk that advanced interactivity may be incompatible with older browsers or hardware configurations. Publishing a function that doesn’t work reliably is potentially worse for the user experience than making no attempt. It depends on the target audience if it’s likely to be needed or worth any risks.

Page layout

Part of the user interface design is affected by the quality of the page layout. For example, a designer may consider whether the site’s page layout should remain consistent on different pages when designing the layout. Page pixel width may also be considered vital for aligning objects in the layout design. The most popular fixed-width websites generally have the same set width to match the current most popular browser window, at the current most popular screen resolution, on the current most popular monitor size. Most pages are also center-aligned for concerns of aesthetics on larger screens.[11]

Fluid layouts increased in popularity around 2000 as an alternative to HTML-table-based layouts and grid-based design in both page layout design principle and in coding technique, but were very slow to be adopted.[note 1] This was due to considerations of screen reading devices and varying windows sizes which designers have no control over. Accordingly, a design may be broken down into units (sidebars, content blocks,embedded advertising areas, navigation areas) that are sent to the browser and which will be fitted into the display window by the browser, as best it can. As the browser does recognize the details of the reader’s screen (window size, font size relative to window etc.) the browser can make user-specific layout adjustments to fluid layouts, but not fixed-width layouts. Although such a display may often change the relative position of major content units, sidebars may be displaced below body text rather than to the side of it. This is a more flexible display than a hard-coded grid-based layout that doesn’t fit the device window. In particular, the relative position of content blocks may change while leaving the content within the block unaffected. This also minimizes the user’s need to horizontally scroll the page.

Responsive Web Design is a newer approach, based on CSS3, and a deeper level of per-device specification within the page’s stylesheet through an enhanced use of the CSS @media rule.

Typography

Web designers may choose to limit the variety of website typefaces to only a few which are of a similar style, instead of using a wide range of typefaces or type styles. Most browsers recognize a specific number of safe fonts, which designers mainly use in order to avoid complications.

Font downloading was later included in the CSS3 fonts module and has since been implemented in Safari 3.1, Opera 10 and Mozilla Firefox 3.5. This has subsequently increased interest in web typography, as well as the usage of font downloading.

Most site layouts incorporate negative space to break the text up into paragraphs and also avoid center-aligned text.[12]

Motion graphics

The page layout and user interface may also be affected by the use of motion graphics. The choice of whether or not to use motion graphics may depend on the target market for the website. Motion graphics may be expected or at least better received with an entertainment-oriented website. However, a website target audience with a more serious or formal interest (such as business, community, or government) might find animations unnecessary and distracting if only for entertainment or decoration purposes. This doesn’t mean that more serious content couldn’t be enhanced with animated or video presentations that is relevant to the content. In either case, motion graphic design may make the difference between more effective visuals or distracting visuals.

Quality of code

Website designers may consider it to be good practice to conform to standards. This is usually done via a description specifying what the element is doing. Failure to conform to standards may not make a website unusable or error prone, but standards can relate to the correct layout of pages for readability as well making sure coded elements are closed appropriately. This includes errors in code, more organized layout for code, and making sure IDs and classes are identified properly. Poorly-coded pages are sometimes colloquially called tag soup. Validating via W3C[7] can only be done when a correct DOCTYPE declaration is made, which is used to highlight errors in code. The system identifies the errors and areas that do not conform to web design standards. This information can then be corrected by the user.[13]

Homepage design

Usability experts, including Jakob Nielsen and Kyle Soucy, have often emphasised homepage design for website success and asserted that the homepage is the most important page on a website.[14][15][16][17] However practitioners into the 2000s were starting to find that a growing number of website traffic was bypassing the homepage, going directly to internal content pages through search engines, e-newsletters and RSS feeds.[18]Leading many practitioners to argue that homepages are less important than most people think.[19][20][21][22] Jared Spool argued in 2007 that a site’s homepage was actually the least important page on a website.[23]

In 2012 and 2013, carousels (also called ‘sliders’ and ‘rotating banners’) have become an extremely popular design element on homepages, often used to showcase featured or recent content in a confined space.[24][25] Many practitioners argue that carousels are an ineffective design element and hurt a website’s search engine optimisation and usability.[25][26][27]

Occupations

There are two primary jobs involved in creating a website: the web designer and web developer, who often work closely together on a website.[28] The web designers are responsible for the visual aspect, which includes the layout, coloring and typography of a web page. Web designers will also have a working knowledge of using a variety of languages such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP and Flash to create a site, although the extent of their knowledge will differ from one web designer to another. Particularly in smaller organizations one person will need the necessary skills for designing and programming the full web page, while larger organizations may have a web designer responsible for the visual aspect alone.[29]

Further jobs which may become involved in the creation of a website include:

  • Graphic designers to create visuals for the site such as logos, layouts and buttons
  • Internet marketing specialists to help maintain web presence through strategic solutions on targeting viewers to the site, by using marketing and promotional techniques on the internet
  • SEO writers to research and recommend the correct words to be incorporated into a particular website and make the website more accessible and found on numerous search engines
  • Internet copywriter to create the written content of the page to appeal to the targeted viewers of the site[1]
  • User experience (UX) designer incorporates aspects of user focused design considerations which include information architecture, user centered design, user testing, interaction design, and occasionally visual design.[30]

See also

See also

Related disciplines

Notes

  1. Jump up^ <table>-based markup and spacer .GIF images
  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Lester, Georgina. “Different jobs and responsibilities of various people involved in creating a website”. Arts Wales UK. Retrieved2012-03-17.
  2. Jump up^ “http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/Longer.html”. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
  3. Jump up^ “Mosaic Browser” (PDF). Retrieved 2012-03-16.
  4. Jump up^ Zwicky, E.D, Cooper, S and Chapman, D,B. (2000). Building Internet Firewalls. United States: O’Reily & Associates. p. 804. ISBN 1-56592-871-7.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Niederst, Jennifer (2006). Web Design In a Nutshell. United States of America: O’Reilly Media. pp. 12–14. ISBN 0-596-00987-9.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b Chapman, Cameron, The Evolution of Web Design, Six Revisions, archived from the original on 30 October 2013
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b “W3C Markup Validation Service”.
  8. Jump up^ W3C. “Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)”.
  9. Jump up^ THORLACIUS, LISBETH (2007). “The Role of Aesthetics in Web Design”. Nordicom Review (28): 63–76. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
  10. Jump up^ Castan ̃eda, J.A; Francisco Mun ̃oz-Leiva, Teodoro Luque (2007). “Web Acceptance Model (WAM): Moderating effects of user experience”. Information & Management 44: 384–396. doi:10.1016/j.im.2007.02.003.
  11. Jump up^ Iteracy. “Web page size and layout”. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  12. Jump up^ Stone, John (2009-11-16). “20 Do’s and Don’ts of Effective Web Typography”. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  13. Jump up^ W3C QA. “My Web site is standard! And yours?”. Retrieved 2012-03-21.
  14. Jump up^ Soucy, Kyle, Is Your Homepage Doing What It Should?, Usable Interface, archived from the original on 8 June 2012
  15. Jump up^ Nielsen & Tahir 2001.
  16. Jump up^ Nielsen, Jakob (10 November 2003), The Ten Most Violated Homepage Design Guidelines, Nielsen Norman Group, archived from the original on 5 October 2013
  17. Jump up^ Knight, Kayla (20 August 2009), Essential Tips for Designing an Effective Homepage, Six Revisions, archived from the original on 21 August 2013
  18. Jump up^ Spool, Jared (29 September 2005), Is Home Page Design Relevant Anymore?, User Interface Engineering, archived from the original on 16 September 2013
  19. Jump up^ Chapman, Cameron (15 September 2010), 10 Usability Tips Based on Research Studies, Six Revisions, archived from the original on 2 September 2013
  20. Jump up^ Gócza, Zoltán, Myth #17: The homepage is your most important page, archived from the original on 2 June 2013
  21. Jump up^ McGovern, Gerry (18 April 2010), The decline of the homepage, archived from the original on 24 May 2013
  22. Jump up^ Porter, Joshua (24 April 2006), Prioritizing Design Time: A Long Tail Approach, User Interface Engineering, archived from the original on 14 May 2013
  23. Jump up^ Spool, Jared (6 August 2007), Usability Tools Podcast: Home Page Design, archived from the original on 29 April 2013
  24. Jump up^ Bates, Chris (9 October 2012), Best practices in carousel design for effective web marketing, Smart Insights, archived from the original on 3 April 2013
  25. ^ Jump up to:a b Messner, Katie (22 April 2013), Image Carousels: Getting Control of the Merry-Go-Round, Usability.gov, archived from the original on 10 October 2013
  26. Jump up^ Jones, Harrison (19 June 2013), Homepage Sliders: Bad For SEO, Bad For Usability, archived from the original on 22 November 2013
  27. Jump up^ Laja, Peep (27 September 2012), Don’t Use Automatic Image Sliders or Carousels, Ignore the Fad, ConversionXL, archived from the original on 25 November 2013
  28. Jump up^ Oleksy, Walter (2001). Careers in Web Design. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,Inc. pp. 9–11. ISBN 9780823931910.
  29. Jump up^ “Web Designer”. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  30. Jump up^ Davies, Anthony, J. “What is a UX/IA?”. Retrieved 2012-03-19.

Mobile Web Design

Mobile Web

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Websites re-designed for mobile screens, with sizes ranging from smartphones,netbooks, and tablets, to laptops, with a desktop screen shown for scale.

The mobile web refers to access to the world wide web, i.e. the use of browser-based Internet services, from a handheld mobile device, such as a smartphone or a feature phone, connected to a mobile network or other wireless network.

Traditionally, access to the Web has been via fixed-line services on laptops and desktop computers. However, the Web is becoming more accessible by portable and wireless devices. An early 2010 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) report said that with the current growth rates, web access by people on the go — via laptops and smart mobile devices – is likely to exceed web access from desktop computers within the next five years.[1] The shift to mobile Web access has been accelerating with the rise since 2007 of larger multitouch smartphones, and of multitouch tablet computers since 2010. Both platforms provide better Internet access, screens, and mobile browsers– or application-based user Web experiences than previous generations of mobile devices have done. Web designers may work separately on such pages, or pages may be automatically converted as in Mobile Wikipedia.

The distinction between mobile Web applications and native applications is anticipated to become increasingly blurred, as mobile browsers gain direct access to the hardware of mobile devices (including accelerometers and GPS chips), and the speed and abilities of browser-based applications improve. Persistent storage and access to sophisticated user interface graphics functions may further reduce the need for the development of platform-specific native applications.

The Mobile Web has also been called Web 3.0, drawing parallels to the changes users were experiencing as Web 2.0 websites proliferated.[2][3][4]

Mobile Web access today still suffers from interoperability and usability problems. Interoperability issues stem from the platform fragmentation of mobile devices, mobile operating systems, and browsers. Usability problems are centered on the small physical size of the mobile phone form factors (limits on display resolution and user input/operating). Despite these shortcomings, many mobile developers choose to create apps using mobile Web. A June 2011 research on mobile development found mobile Web the third most used platform, trailing Android and iOS.[5]

In an article in Communications of the ACM in April 2013, Web technologist Nicholas C. Zakas, noted that mobile phones in use in 2013 were more powerful than Apollo 11‘s 70 lb (32 kg) Apollo Guidance Computerused in the July 1969 lunar landing.[6][7][8] However, in spite of their power, in 2013, mobile devices still suffer from Web performance with slow connections similar to the 1996 stage of Web development.[7][8] Mobile devices with slower download request/response times, the latency of over-the-air data transmission,[7][8] with “high-latency connections, slower CPUs, and less memory” force developers to rethink Web applications created for desktops with “wired connections, fast CPUs, and almost endless memory.”[7][8]

Wikipedia viewed with Opera Minimobile web browser on a small-screen cellphone

Mobile access

‘Mobile Internet’ refers to access to the Internet via a cellular telephone service provider. It is wireless access that can handoff to another radio tower while it is moving across the service area. It can refer an immobile device that stays connected to one tower, but this is not the meaning of “mobile” here. Wi-Fi and other better methods are commonly available for users not on the move. Cellular base stations are more expensive to provide than a wireless base station that connects directly to an internet service provider, rather than through the telephone system.

A mobile phone, such as a smartphone, that connects to data or voice services without going through the cellular base station is not on mobile Internet. A laptop with a broadband modem and a cellular service provider subscription, that is traveling on a bus through the city is on mobile Internet.

A mobile broadband modem “tethers” the smartphone to one or more computers or other end user devices to provide access to the Internet via the protocols that cellular telephone service providers may offer.

According to BuzzCity, mobile internet increased 30% from Q1 to Q2 2011. The four countries which have advertising impression (?) in total more than 1 billion in one quarter were India, Indonesia, Vietnam and United States.[9] As of July 2012, approximately 10.5% of all Web traffic occurs through mobile devices (up from 4% in December 2010).[10]

Standards

Total data consumed by Opera Mini users worldwide from 2006 to mid-2008 in TB

Standards improve the interoperability, usability, and accessibility of mobile web usage.

The Mobile Web Initiative (MWI) was set up by the W3C to develop the best practices and technologies relevant to the mobile Web. The goal of the initiative is to make browsing the Web from mobile devices more reliable and accessible. The main aim is to evolve standards of data formats from Internet providers that are tailored to the specifications of particular mobile devices. The W3C has published guidelines for mobile content, and is addressing the problem of device diversity by establishing a technology to support a repository of device descriptions.

W3C is also developing a validating scheme to assess the readiness of content for the mobile web, through its mobileOK Scheme, which will help content developers to quickly determine if their content is web-ready. The W3C guidelines and mobile OK approach have not been immune from criticism. This puts the emphasis on Adaptation, which is now seen as the key process in achieving the ubiquitous web, when combined with a device description repository.

mTLD, the registry for .mobi, has released a free testing tool called the MobiReady Report (see mobiForge) to analyze the mobile readiness of website. It does a free page analysis and gives a Mobi Ready score. This report tests the mobile-readiness of the site using industry best practices and standards.

Other standards for the mobile web are being documented and explored for particular applications by interested industry groups, such as the use of the mobile web for the purpose of education and training.

Development

The first access to the mobile web was commercially offered in Finland in 1996 on the Nokia 9000 Communicator phone via the Sonera and Radiolinja networks. This was access to the real internet. The first commercial launch of a mobile-specific browser-based web service was in 1999 in Japan when i-mode was launched by NTT DoCoMo.

Evolution of mobile web standards

The mobile Web primarily utilises lightweight pages like this one written in Extensible Hypertext Markup Language(XHTML) or Wireless Markup Language (WML) to deliver content to mobile devices. Many new mobile browsers are moving beyond these limits by supporting a wider range of Web formats, including variants of HTML commonly found on the desktop Web.

Top-level domain

The .mobi sponsored top-level domain was launched specifically for the mobile Internet by a consortium of companies including Google, Microsoft, Nokia, Samsung, and Vodafone. By forcing sites to comply with mobile web standards, .mobi tries to ensure visitors a consistent and optimized experience on their mobile device. However, this domain has been criticized by several big names, including Tim Berners-Lee of the W3C, who claims that it breaks the device independence of the web:

It is fundamentally useful to be able to quote the URI for some information and then look up that URI in an entirely different context. For example, I may want to look up a restaurant on my laptop, bookmark it, and then, when I only have my phone, check the bookmark to have a look at the evening menu. Or, my travel agent may send me a pointer to my itinerary for a business trip. I may view the itinerary from my office on a large screen and want to see the map, or I may view it at the airport from my phone when all I want is the gate number.

Dividing the Web into information destined for different devices, or different classes of user, or different classes of information, breaks the Web in a fundamental way.

I urge ICANN not to create the “.mobi” top level domain.

Advertising

Advertisers are increasingly using the mobile Web as a platform to reach consumers. The total value of advertising on mobile was 2.2 billion dollars in 2007. A recent study by the Online Publishers Association reported that about one-in-ten mobile Web users said they have made a purchase based on a mobile Web ad, while 23% said they have visited a Web site, 13% said they have requested more information about a product or service and 11% said they have gone to a store to check out a product.

Limitations

Though Internet access “on the go” provides advantages to many, such as the ability to communicate by email with others and obtain information anywhere, the web, accessed from mobile devices, has many limits, which may vary, depending on the device. However, newer smartphones overcome some of these restrictions. Some problems which may be encountered include:

  • Small screen size – This makes it difficult or impossible to see text and graphics dependent on the standard size of a desktop computer screen.
  • Lack of windows – On a desktop computer, the ability to open more than one window at a time allows for multi-tasking and for easy revert to a previous page. Historically on mobile web, only one page could be displayed at a time, and pages could only be viewed in the sequence they were originally accessed. However, Opera Mini[11] was among the first allowing multiple windows, and browser tabs have become commonplace but few mobile browsers allow overlapping windows on the screen.
  • Navigation – Navigation is a problem for websites not optimized for mobile devices as the content area is large, the screen size is small, and there is no scroll wheel orhoverbox feature.
  • Lack of JavaScript and cookies – Most devices do not support client-side scripting and storage of cookies (smartphones excluded), which are now widely used in most Web sites to enhance user experience, facilitating the validation of data entered by the page visitor, etc. This also results in web analytics tools being unable to uniquely identify visitors using mobile devices.
  • Types of pages accessible – Many sites that can be accessed on a desktop cannot on a mobile device. Many devices cannot access pages with a secured connection, Flash or other similar software, PDFs, or video sites, although as of 2011, this has been changing.
  • Speed – On most mobile devices, the speed of service is slow, sometimes slower than dial-up Internet access.
  • Broken pages – On many devices, a single page as viewed on a desktop is broken into segments, each treated as a separate page. This further slows navigation.
  • Compressed pages – Many pages, in their conversion to mobile format, are squeezed into an order different from how they would customarily be viewed on a desktop computer.
  • Size of messages – Many devices have limits on the number of characters that can be sent in an email message.
  • Cost – the access and bandwidth charges levied by cellphone networks can be high if there is no flat fee per month.
  • Location of mobile user:
    • if advertisements reach phone users in private locations, users find them more distressful (Banerjee & Dholakia, 2008)
    • if the user is abroad the flat fee per month usually does not apply
  • Situation in which ad reaches user – When advertisements reach users in work-related situations, they may be considered more intrusive than in leisure situations (Banerjee & Dholakia, 2008)

The inability of mobile web applications to access the local capabilities on the mobile device can limit their ability to provide the same features as native applications. The OMTP BONDI activity is acting as a catalyst to enable a set of JavaScript APIs which can access local capabilities in a secure way on the mobile device. Specifications and a reference implementation[12] have been produced. Security is a key aspect in this provision in order to protect users from malicious web applications and widgets.

In addition to the limits of the device, there are limits that should be made known to users concerning the interference these devices cause in other electromagnetic technology.

The convergence of the Internet and phone, in particular has caused hospitals to increase their mobile phone exclusion zones. A study by Erik van Lieshout and colleagues (Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam) has found that the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) used in modern phones can affect machines from up to 3 meters away. The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) signals, used in 3G networks, have a smaller exclusion zone of just a few centimeters. The worst offenders in hospitals are the doctors.[13]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ “Press Release: ITU sees 5 billion mobile subscriptions globally in 2010”.
  2. Jump up^ “Web 3.0: The Mobile Era”. TechCrunch. 2012-08-11. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  3. Jump up^ “Web 3.0 to Merge the Physical and the Virtual – Technorati Business”. Technorati.com. 2012-09-26. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  4. Jump up^ Kevin Tea (2012-08-28). “Web 3.0 Is Here And It’s Mobile | BCW”. Businesscomputingworld.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  5. Jump up^ “Developer Economics 2011”.
  6. Jump up^ Robertson, Grant (20 July 2009). “How powerful was the Apollo 11 computer?”.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Zakas, Nicholas C. (17 February 2013). “The Evolution of Web Development for Mobile Devices: Building Web sites that perform well on mobile devices remains a challenge.”.Association for Computing Machinery.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Zakas, Nicholas C. (April 2013). “The Evolution of Web Development for Mobile Devices: Building Web sites that perform well on mobile devices remains a challenge.”.Communications of the ACM (New York, New York: Association for Computing Machinery) 56 (4).
  9. Jump up^ “BuzzCity: Mobile Ads are Growing, Indonesia is Still #2 in The World”. July 18, 2011.
  10. Jump up^ Macmanus, Richard. “Top Trends of 2012: The Continuing Rapid Growth of Mobile”. ReadWriteWeb. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  11. Jump up^ “Download Opera browser for mobile devices – Opera Software”. Opera.com. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  12. Jump up^ “BONDI Reference Implementation”. omtp.org. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  13. Jump up^ New Scientist, 15 September 2007: 5 Missing or empty |title= (help)