Small Business SEO

“Search marketing has grown in popularity as online search continues to evolve from a novelty to a standard feature in our everyday lives. Almost every business in the country, big or small and regardless of industry, has some kind of web presence, and everybody is competing for only a handful of positions at the top of search-engine results pages (SERPs).

Since larger companies — mega-corporations such as Walmart or Home Depot — already have millions of inbound links, decades of content, and a recurring base of online visitors, it’s no wonder why they generally appear in the top ranking positions when people search for commercial products. Regardless of what industry you’re in, you’ll always have at least one competitor who has been around longer and has tried harder than you have (allocated more budget and resources) to building their visibility on the web and in search engines.

So how can you, a small business with limited experience and resources, compete with that level of online domination?

Thankfully, search-engine optimization (SEO) is no longer about sheer volume. It’s not about who’s been on the web the longest, who has the most inbound links, or even who has the biggest library of great content. It’s about which page or website is the most relevant for the searcher. Knowing that, there are several strategies you can implement that can give you the edge over the bigger, badder competition.

1. Specialize in a niche.

One of the best things you can do as a small business is give yourself a niche focus. Instinctively, you might think that the better option for search visibility is to cover as many areas of expertise as possible. For example, if you work in heating, cooling, plumbing, roofing, construction and a dozen other home improvement topics, you’ll be able to appear in search engines for queries related to any of those keywords.

However, if you’re trying to take down your biggest competitors, it’s better to take more of a niche focus. Having several areas of specialization gives you relevance for a wide range of keywords, but your relevance for each of them is somewhat low. If you pour all your effort into one or a small handful of keywords, you’ll be able to achieve a much higher visibility.

For example, if you specialize in indoor plumbing, you might miss out on limited visibility for all those other home improvement keywords, but you’ll be the best in indoor plumbing.

2. Engage in a long-tail keyword strategy.

Long-tail keyword strategies try to accomplish a similar goal. In niche specialization, you sacrifice minimal relevance in a large volume of topics for maximum relevance in a much smaller volume of topics. With long-tail keywords, you’ll be sacrificing minimal ranking potential with highly popular keywords for maximum ranking potential with less popular keywords.

Long-tail keywords are extended phrases Google looks for, such as “tips for installing a toilet in an upstairs bathroom” instead of the much shorter, more popular “toilet installation.” Ranking highly for long-tail keywords is much easier than ranking high for shorter keywords, so even though they bring in less traffic, they’re still more valuable for small businesses to go after.

Fortunately, optimizing for long-tail keywords is easy. You can research ideal long-tail keywords to go after using Webmaster Tools, or you can just publish lots of great content — long-tail keyword phrases tend to appear naturally in the course of your writing. For further information on identifying and using long-tail keywords, see “The Rise of the Long-Tail Keyword for SEO” and “How to Find Long-Tail Keywords Once You’ve Identified Your Primary Keywords.”

3. Leverage locality for optimization.

Another way to beat the competition is by targeting a much more local audience. Local search is becoming more relevant and more important, so in today’s context, being the best barber shop in Houston is far better than being an OK barber shop on a national scale.

Even if your business does operate on a national (or international) level, you can still capture a niche market share and edge out your competition in at least one key area by optimizing for a specific local area. In this section, I’ll introduce a handful of specific strategies you can use to build your reputation and relevance in your given city.

Event attendance and community building. Get your name out there by getting involved in the community. Attend major events whenever you can, such as fairs, festivals or community gatherings. This will give you two opportunities: First, you’ll immediately generate more business simply by being at the event and offering discounts or promotions to event attendees. Second, and more importantly for SEO, you’ll have the opportunity to brag about your attendance online.

Post excellent content on your website, using local-specific keywords, about your company’s attendance, and syndicate a press release about the opportunity for some high-authority and local-specific inbound links. This is one of the easiest ways to generate publicity and build some local-optimized content simultaneously.

Local reviews, on directory and aggregation sites such as Yelp or TripAdvisor, have become essential for local SEO. With Google’s Pigeon algorithm update earlier this year, Yelp and similar sites received a huge boost in priority. Now, sites with large volumes of positive reviews rank higher than similar sites with few or negative reviews. In fact, Yelp’s importance has increased so much that, in some cases, Yelp profiles are actually ranking higher than the official pages of the companies they represent.

What this means for small businesses is a new, key opportunity to jump in the rankings without worrying about producing content or building links. Instead, you can focus on cultivating strong, positive reviews from your customers. While Yelp explicitly forbids compensating your reviewers, or asking customers directly for reviews in any way, you can still encourage more reviews with Yelp stickers and occasional call-outs with a link on your social-media profiles.

Hyper-local content. Local search is getting more local, and taking advantage of that incoming trend could be the opportunity you need to crush a larger competitor — especially if that competitor operates in the same city as you.

Google is getting better at identifying and categorizing neighborhoods within a broader city, so you can take local search a step further by using neighborhood-specific keywords instead of just city and state names. Your potential success is determined by how Google views your neighborhood boundaries, so do some research before you begin.

4. Personalize your social engagement.

Aside from local search optimization, you can also increase your chances of overcoming steep competition by stepping up the “personal” factor in your brand strategy. Large businesses tend to lose a portion of their personalities once they hit a certain point in their growth, but being small and nimble gives you the advantage of giving each follower a more personal, humanized experience.

Nurture your following on social media, and you’ll attract more posts and followers, and the bigger and more active your social-media presence is, the higher you’ll rank in Google.

5. Become a recognized, authoritative content publisher.

Building brand awareness, loyalty, trust and credibility requires frequent and quality content publication. Most companies utilize an on-site blog to publish content, while others produce and distribute ebooks, webinars, podcasts, videos and other forms of content through various other channels.

The keys to building your brand through a content strategy are quality and consistency. Maximize the reach of each piece of content you publish to maximize your return on investment, and be consistent with your publication schedule so you start to become recognized as a dependable authority.

Conclusion

There’s no shortcut to rise to the top of the search engine rankings, especially when there’s a massive competitor lingering on the scene. But with a strategy that leverages your geographic location and your agility, you can selectively overcome your competitors in specific key areas.

Give yourself the best odds by narrowing your topic and keyword focus and increasing your location-specific relevance. You might not rank for as many keywords as the bigger players, but you will be able to surpass them in relevance for your chosen focal points.” 

JAYSON DEMERS – Founder and CEO, AudienceBloom

Payment Solutions

E-commerce payment system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An e-commerce payment system facilitates the acceptance of electronic payment for online transactions. Also known as a sample of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), e-commerce payment systems have become increasingly popular due to the widespread use of the internet-based shopping and banking.

Over the years, credit cards have become one of the most common forms of payment for e-commerce transactions. In North America almost 90% of online B2C transactions were made with this payment type.[1] Turban et al. goes on to explain that it would be difficult for an online retailer to operate without supporting credit and debit cards due to their widespread use. Increased security measures include use of the card verification number (CVN) which detects fraud by comparing the verification number printed on the signature strip on the back of the card with the information on file with the cardholder’s issuing bank.[2] Also online merchants have to comply with stringent rules stipulated by the credit and debit card issuers (Visa and MasterCard)[3] this means that merchants must have security protocol and procedures in place to ensure transactions are more secure. This can also include having a certificate from an authorized certification authority (CA) who provides PKI(Public-Key infrastructure) for securing credit and debit card transactions.

Despite widespread use in North America, there are still a large number of countries such as China, India and Pakistan that have some problems to overcome in regard to credit card security. In the meantime, the use of smartcards has become extremely popular. A Smartcard is similar to a credit card; however it contains an embedded 8-bit microprocessor and uses electronic cash which transfers from the consumers’ card to the sellers’ device. A popular smartcard initiative is the VISA Smartcard. Using the VISA Smartcard you can transfer electronic cash to your card from your bank account, and you can then use your card at various retailers and on the internet.

There are companies that enable financial transactions to transpire over the internet, such as PayPal. Many of the mediaries permit consumers to establish an account quickly, and to transfer funds into their on-line accounts from a traditional bank account (typically via ACH transactions), and vice versa, after verification of the consumer’s identity and authority to access such bank accounts. Also, the larger mediaries further allow transactions to and from credit card accounts, although such credit card transactions are usually assessed a fee (either to the recipient or the sender) to recoup the transaction fees charged to the mediary.

The speed and simplicity with which cyber-mediary accounts can be established and used have contributed to their widespread use, although the risk of abuse, theft and other problems—with disgruntled users frequently accusing the mediaries themselves of wrongful behavior—is associated with them.

Methods of Online Payment

Although credit cards are most popular in the US and some other countries, there are a few alternative systems.

Net Banking

This is a system, well known in India, that does not involve any sort of physical card. It is used by customers who have accounts enabled with Internet Banking. Instead of entering card details on the purchaser’s site, in this system the payment gateway allows one to specify which bank they wish to pay from. Then the user is redirected to the bank’s website, where one can authenticate oneself and then approve the payment. Typically there will also be some form of two-factor authentication.

It is typically seen as being safer than using credit cards, with the result that nearly all merchant accounts in India offer it as an option.

A very similar system, known as iDEAL, is popular in the Netherlands.

PayPal

PayPal is a global e-commerce business allowing payments and money transfers to be made through the Internet. Online money transfers serve as electronic alternatives to paying with traditional paper methods, such as cheque’s and money orders. It is subject to the US economic sanction list and other rules and interventions required by US laws or government. PayPal is an acquirer, a performing payment processing for online vendors, auction sites, and other commercial users, for which it charges a fee. It may also charge a fee for receiving money, proportional to the amount received. The fees depend on the currency used, the payment option used, the country of the sender, the country of the recipient, the amount sent and the recipient’s account type. In addition, eBay purchases made by credit card through PayPal may incur extra fees if the buyer and seller use different currencies. On October 3, 2002, PayPal became a wholly owned subsidiary of eBay. Its corporate headquarters are in San Jose, California, United States at eBay’s North First Street satellite office campus. The company also has significant operations in Omaha, Scottsdale, Charlotte and Austin in the United States; Chennai in India; Dublin in Ireland; Berlin in Germany; and Tel Aviv in Israel. From July 2007, PayPal has operated across the European Union as a Luxembourg-based bank

Google Wallet

Google Wallet was launched in 2011, serving a similar function as PayPal to facilitate payments and transfer money online. It also features a security that has not been cracked to date, and the ability to send payments as attachments via email.[4]

VTC Pay

VTC Pay is E- Commerce payment system, very well known in Vietnam. A moderate connector among Buyers, Sellers and Banks. It is on behalf of customers who have bank accounts to conduct receipt and payment transactions. Own the largest payment network in Vietnam with 29 domestic banks and 02 International Card Manufacturers Associations. In addition, VTC Pay Wallet is an electronic money storage service . It is used to conduct online payment such as e-commerce and electronic bill payment.

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Turban, E. King, D. McKay, J. Marshall, P. Lee, J & Vielhand, D. (2008). Electronic Commerce 2008: A Managerial Perspective. London: Pearson Education Ltd. p.550
  2. Jump up^ Turban, E. King, D. McKay, J. Marshall, P. Lee, J & Vielhand, D. (2008). Electronic Commerce 2008: A Managerial Perspective. London: Pearson Education Ltd. p.554
  3. Jump up^ Mastercard: Security Rules and Procedures-Merchant Edition (PDF). 2009. Retrieved: May 12, 2009
  4. Jump up^ http://www.google.com/wallet

Google Apps

Google Apps for Work

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Google Apps for Work
Google-Apps-For-Work.png
Developer(s) Google Inc.
Platform Gmail, Calendar, Hangouts, Drive, Docs, Sheets, Slides,Sites and Vault.
Type Office suite and Cloud Computing
License Trialware (Retail, volume licensing, SaaS)
Website Official website (US)
Official website (UK)

Google Apps for Work (formerly Google Apps for Business) is a suite of cloud computing productivity and collaboration software tools and softwareoffered on a subscription basis by Google.

It includes Google’s popular web applications including Gmail, Google Drive, Google Hangouts, Google Calendar, and Google Docs.[1] While these products are available to consumers free of charge, Google Apps for Work adds business-specific features such as custom email addresses at your domain (@yourcompany.com), at least 30GB of storage for documents and email, and 24/7 phone and email support.[2] As a cloud computing solution, it takes a different approach from off-the-shelf office productivity software by hosting customer information in Google’s network of secure data centers,[3] rather than on traditional in-house servers that are located within companies.[4]

According to Google, more than 5 million organizations around the world use Google Apps, including 60 percent of Fortune 500 companies.[5]

History

  • February 10, 2006 – Google launched a Gmail for Your Domain test at San Jose City College, hosting Gmail accounts with SJCC domain addresses and admin tools for account management.[6]
  • August 28, 2006 – Google launched Google Apps for Your Domain, a set of apps for organizations. Available for free as a beta product, it included Gmail, Google Talk, Google Calendar, and the Google Page Creator which was replaced with Google Sites. Dave Girouard, then Google’s vice president and general manager for enterprise, outlined its benefits for business customers: “Organizations can let Google be the experts in delivering high quality email, messaging, and other web-based services while they focus on the needs of their users and their day-to-day business.”[7]
  • October 10, 2006 – An edition for schools, known as Google Apps for Education, was announced.[8]
  • February 22, 2007 – Google introduced Google Apps Premier Edition, which differed from the free version by offering more storage (10GB per account), APIs for business integration, and a 99.9% uptime service-level agreement. It cost $50 per user account per year. According to Google, early adopters of Google Apps Premier Edition included Procter & Gamble, San Francisco Bay Pediatrics, and Salesforce.com.[9]
  • June 25, 2007 – Google added a number of features to Google Apps, including mail migration, which allows customers to transfer existing email data from an IMAP server.[10] A ZDNet article noted that Google Apps now offered a tool for switching from the popular Exchange Server and Lotus Notes, positioning Google as an alternative to Microsoft and IBM.[11]
  • October 3, 2007 – A month after acquiring Postini, Google announced that the startup’s email security and compliance options had been added to Google Apps Premier Edition. Customers now had the ability to better configure their spam and virus filtering, implement retention policies, restore deleted messages, and give administrators access to all emails.[12]
  • February 26, 2008 – Google introduced Google Sites, a simple new Google Apps tool for creating intranets and team websites.[13]
  • June 9, 2010 – Google launched Google Apps Sync for Microsoft Outlook, a plugin that allows customers to synchronize their email, calendar, and contacts data between Outlook and Google Apps.[14]
  • July 7, 2010 – Google announced that the services included in Google Apps—Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Docs, and Google Talk—were no longer in beta.[15]
  • March 9, 2010 – Google opened the Google Apps Marketplace, an online store for third-party business applications that integrate with Google Apps, to make it easier for users and software to do business in the cloud. Participating vendors included Intuit, Appirio, and Atlassian.[16]
  • July 26, 2010 – Google introduced Google Apps for Government, an edition of Google Apps designed to meet the public sector’s unique policy and security needs. It was also announced that Google Apps had become the first suite of cloud applications to receive Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) certification and accreditation.[17]
  • April 26, 2011 – Nearly five years after the launch of Google Apps, Google announced that organizations with more than 10 users were no longer eligible for the free edition of Google Apps. They would have to sign up for the paid version, now known as Google Apps for Business. A flexible billing plan was also introduced, giving customers the option of paying $5 per user per month with no contractual commitment.[18]
  • March 28, 2012 – Google launched Google Apps Vault, an optional Electronic discovery and archiving service for Google Apps for Business customers.[19]
  • April 24, 2012 – Google introduced Google Drive, a platform for storing and sharing files. Each Google Apps for Business user was given 5GB of Drive storage, with the option to purchase more.[20] Observers noted that Google had now entered the cloud storage market, competing with players like Dropbox and Box.[21]
  • December 6, 2012 – Google announced that the free version of Google Apps would no longer be available to new customers.[22]
  • May 13, 2013 – Google increased the Drive storage quota for Google Apps customers. Google combined the 25GB on Gmail and 5GB on Drive, increasing it to 30GB total per user that can be used across all Apps products including Gmail and Google Drive.[23]
  • March 10, 2014 – Google launched the Google Apps Referral Program, which offers participating individuals a $15 referral bonus for each new Google Apps user they refer.[24]
  • June 25, 2014 – Google announced Drive for Work, a new Google Apps offering featuring unlimited file storage, advanced audit reporting, and new security controls for $10 per user per month.[25]
  • September 2, 2014 – Google Enterprise, the company’s business product division, was officially renamed Google for Work. “We never set out to create a traditional ‘enterprise’ business—we wanted to create a new way of doing work,” explained Eric Schmidt, Google’s executive chairman. “So the time has come for our name to catch up with our ambition.” To reflect this larger change, Google Apps for Business was renamed Google Apps for Work.[26]
  • November 14, 2014 – In the free edition of Google Apps secondary domains are not supported. The free edition of Google Apps only supports domain aliases.[27]

Products

The range of Google Apps for Work products and services comprises Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Drive, Hangouts, Google Docs, Google Sheets, Google Slides, Google Forms, Google Sites, Google+, and Google Apps Vault. With the exception of Google Apps Vault,[28] all are included in the basic plan, which costs $5 per user per month or $50 per user per year. A premium package, Drive for Work, includes Google Apps Vault plus unlimited storage is available for $10 per user per month.[29]

Gmail

Launched in a limited rollout on April 1, 2004, Gmail is now the most popular web email service in the world.[30] It became open to all consumers in 2007. As of June 2012, 425 million people use Gmail, according to Google.[31]

The free consumer version of Gmail is supported by text ads related to the contents of people’s email messages.[32] Popular features include 15GB of free storage, threaded conversations, robust search capabilities, and an app-like interface.[33]

While similar to the free version, Gmail in Google Apps for Work adds a number of features designed for business users.[34]

These include:

  • Custom email including the customer’s domain name (@yourcompany.com)
  • 99.9% guaranteed uptime with zero scheduled downtime for maintenance[35]
  • Either 30GB or unlimited storage shared with Google Drive, depending on the plan
  • No advertising
  • 24/7 customer support
  • Google Apps Sync for Microsoft Outlook[34]

Google Drive

Google’s file storage and synchronization service was released on April 24, 2012,[36] at least six years after rumors about the product first began circulating.[37] Google’s official announcement described Google Drive as “a place where you can create, share, collaborate, and keep all of your stuff.”[36]

With Google Drive, users can upload any type of files to the cloud, share them with others, and access them from any computer, tablet, or smartphone. Users can easily sync files between their computer and the cloud with a desktop application for Mac and PC. This app puts a special folder on their computer and all changes made to files sync across Drive, on the web and across devices. The consumer version of Google Drive includes 15GB of storage shared across Gmail, Drive and Google+ Photos.[38]

When offered as part of Google Apps for Work, Google Drive comes with additional features designed for business use. These include:

  • Either 30GB or unlimited storage shared with Gmail, depending on the plan
  • 24/7 customer support
  • Sharing controls that keep files private until customers decide to share them
  • Advanced audit and reporting[39]

Google Docs, Sheets, Slides, and Forms

Google Apps includes online editors for creating text documents or document file format, spreadsheets, presentations, and surveys.[40] The set of tools was first released on October 11, 2006, as Google Docs & Spreadsheets.[41]

Google Docs, Sheets, Slides, and Forms work within any web browser or on any web-enabled mobile devices. Documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and surveys can be shared, commented on, and co-edited in real time. Additional features include unlimited revision history that keep all changes safe in one place and offline access that lets people work on their documents without internet connection.[42]

On June 25, 2014, Google introduced native editing for Microsoft Office files in Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides.[43] Echoing similar remarks in other articles, a Mashable journalist wrote, “Google is clearly positioning its apps as a more affordable solution for companies that need to occasionally edit Office files.”[44]

Google Sites

Introduced on February 28, 2008, Google Sites allows people to create and edit web pages even if they are not familiar with HTML or web design.[45] People can build sites from scratch or with templates, upload content such as photos and videos,[45] and control access permissions by choosing who can view and edit each page.[46]

Google Sites launched as part of the paid Google Apps suite but soon became available to consumers as well. Business customers use Google Sites to build project sites, company intranets, and public-facing sites.[47]

Google Calendar

Designed to integrate with Gmail, Google’s online calendar service launched to consumers on April 13, 2006. It uses the iCal standard to work with other calendar applications.[48]

Google’s online calendar is an integrated online, shareable calendar designed for teams.[49] Businesses can create specific team calendars and share them company wide.[50] Calendars can be delegated to another person to manage a specific calendar and events.[51] People can also use Google Calendar to see if meeting rooms or shared resources are free, and add them to events.

Helpful features of Google Calendar include:

  • Share calendars with teammates and others to check availability
  • Overlay teammates’ calendars into a single view to find a time when everyone is available
  • Use the mobile app or synchronize with the built-in calendar on mobile devices
  • Publishing of calendars to the web, and integration into Google Sites
  • Simple migration from Exchange, Outlook, or iCal, or from .ics and .csv files
  • Book shared rooms and resources[50]

Google Hangouts

On May 15, 2013, Google announced that a new text, voice, and video chat tool would replace its Google Talk, Google Voice, and Google+ Hangouts services.[52] Known as Google Hangouts, it allows up to 10 people for the consumer version and up to 15 people for the work version to join conversations from their computer or mobile device.[53] Participants can share their screens, and view and work on things together.[54] The Hangouts On Air service lets people stream live broadcasts to Google+, YouTube, and their websites.[55]

The version of Hangouts included with Google Apps for Work[56] supports up to 15 participants, and administrators can choose to restrict Hangouts to only people on the same domain, limiting the access of external participants.[57]

The Hangouts app keeps messages stored online in Google’s cloud, and offers an option to toggle off history if people want to go off the record.[58] And the Google+ integration saves every photo people share with each other in a private, shared album on Google+.[58]

On July 30, 2014, Google announced that all Google Apps customers will have access to Hangouts, including those without a Google+ profile.[59] Google also partnered to integrate with other video chat providers – likeBlue Jeans Network and Intercall.[60] Google also announced that Hangouts is covered under the same Terms of Service as other Google Apps for Work products like Gmail and Drive. Apps for Work customers also get 24/7 phone support for Hangouts, 99.9% guaranteed uptime, and ISO27001 and SOC 2 certification.[61]

On December 19, 2014, Google announced via Google+ post that they brought back one of the most requested features for Hangouts in Gmail. The Apps admins have control to keep status messages to be only visible internally.[62]

Google+

Google’s social networking service, Google+, launched on June 28, 2011, in an invitation-only field trial.[63] Observers declared it Google’s latest attempt to challenge social giant Facebook.[64] While Google+ has since overtaken Twitter to become the world’s second largest social network after Facebook,[65] it has been criticized for disappointing users and failing to generate referral traffic.[66]

On October 27, 2011, Google announced that Google+ was available for people who use Google Apps at college, work and home.[67]

On August 29, 2012, Google announced that after receiving feedback from business customers that participated in a pilot program, they tailored Google+ features for organizations. These features include private sharing within organizations and administrative controls that restrict the visibility of profiles and posts.[68]

On November 5, 2013, Google added an extra layer of security for restricted communities that could only be joined by people in an organization. Administrators have the option to set restricted communities by default and choose when people outside of the organization can join.[69]

Google+ as a business network received mixed reviews from having features that help small businesses get noticed online[70] to confusing people over its branding[71] to being an important player in social marketing strategy for businesses.[72] Many online articles emphasize that having a Google+ presence helps businesses with their Google search result rankings since Google+ posts and shares are immediately indexed by Google.[73]

Google Apps Vault

Google Apps Vault, an archiving and eDiscovery service exclusively available to Google Apps customers, was announced on March 28, 2012.[74] Vault allows customers to find and preserve email messages that may be relevant to litigation. It also helps them manage business data for continuity, compliance, and regulatory purposes.[75] As of June 25, 2014, Vault customers can also search, preview, and export Google Drive files.[76]

Google Apps Vault is included as part of Drive for Work with unlimited storage, available for $10 per user per month.[77]

Pricing

When prospective customers sign up for Google Apps for Work, they get a free 30-day trial for up to 10 users.[78] After the trial, they may choose either an annual plan at $50 per user per year or a flexible plan at $5 per user per month or $60/year. Both plans are billed on a monthly basis.[29]

With the flexible plan, customers have the option of adding unlimited storage and Google Apps Vault for a total monthly cost of $10 per user. For organizations with fewer than five users, storage is capped to 1TB per user with this option.[29]

Security

Google has stated that they do not own the customer’s data. The data is stored in Google’s data centers, and access is limited to select employees and personnel.[79] They do not share data with others, will only keep data as long as required by the customer, and customers can take the data if they migrate off Google Apps.[80]

Google Apps offers enterprise-grade security and compliance, including a SSAE 16 / ISAE 3402 Type II, SOC 2-audit, ISO 27001 certification, adherence to the Safe Harbor Privacy Principles, and can support industry-specific requirements like Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).[81] Google claims that spam blockers are integrated into Google Apps with built-in virus checking and checking of documents before allowing users to download any message.[79]

Google ensures that all files uploaded to Google Drive are encrypted, and that every email people send or receives are encrypted while moving internally between data centers.[82] In a blog post, Google for Work stated that they offer strong contractual commitments to protect customer’s information and does not show advertisements or scan customer information for advertising.[82]

Usage

Google Apps claims that over 5M businesses are using their tools, either the free or the paid version.[83] According to Google for Work President Amit Singh, 60% of Fortune 500 companies are using Google for Work services.[84] Customers range across industries around the globe including Uber,[85] AllSaints,[86] Buzzfeed,[87] Design Within Reach,[88] Virgin, PwC[89] and more. Many of the customers using Apps are featured on the Apps customer page.[90]

Google Resellers and Referrers

Google has an ecosystem of resellers that help prospects get up and running on Apps. The Partner directory helps people find partners. On March 10, 2014, Google launched a referral program, that gives referrers $15 for every person who signs up.[91] This program initially debuted for anyone based in the US and Canada. The fine print of the referral program shows that people can refer an unlimited number of customers, but they’re rewarded for each referral customer’s first 100 users.[92]

On December 4, 2014, Google introduced the Google for Work and Education Partner Program which helps partners sell, service and innovate across Google for Work and Education suite of products and platforms.[93]

Google Apps Marketplace

The Google Apps Marketplace launched in 2010 is an online store with business-oriented cloud applications that augment Google Apps functionality.[16] The Marketplace lets administrators browse for, purchase, and deploy integrated business-oriented cloud applications. It is available for Google Apps, Google Apps for Work, and Google Apps for Education.[94]

Developers can also develop apps on the Marketplace, and sell apps and services in the Marketplace.[94] On March 6, 2014, Google shared that Google Apps customers have added over 200M installs from the marketplace since the launch of the Marketplace in 2010.

On September 17, 2014, Google released a blog post that employees can install third-party apps from the Marketplace without involving administrators.[95]

Online Reviews

Google Apps has received many positive reviews online with an average of 4-5 stars on a 5 star scale.[96] Reviews praise Google Apps for its competitive pricing, all-inclusive suite offering, easy setup, and working well across devices.[97] Some negative reviews point out that Google Apps, Google Presentations and Google Documents lack the same level of features that provide professional-looking documents made in Powerpoint and Microsoft Word.[97]

Competitive Section

The key competitor to the Google Apps suite is Microsoft Office 365—Microsoft’s cloud-based offering for businesses that includes similar products. Online reviewers vary as to which is the better offering. Reviews note that Google Apps and Microsoft 365 are similar in ratings but very different in features.

The key differences are in the pricing plans, storage space and number of features. Microsoft 365 tends to have a greater number of features than Google Apps, but many of them often go unused.[98] Google does not release revenue or user figures, making it hard for reviewers to compare Google Apps success to that of Microsoft Office.[99] As of October 2014, Microsoft has 7M customers for the Office 365 product and grew by 25% in the last quarter.[100] Microsoft also announced that it is giving away unlimited storage to customers who buy the cloud version of Microsoft Office 365.[100]

There are currently no startups competing with Google Apps suite because the cost to compete on one product, like email, is too high and the revenue opportunity is hard.[100]

With Google Apps’ new SKU, Apps with Unlimited Storage and Vault, Google Apps has attracted new competitors – Box, Dropbox and OneDrive.[101]

Related Products

Google Apps for Work is part of many other products within Google’s products for work.[26] These include Google Cloud Platform, Google Search for Work, Google Maps for Work, Google Chrome for Work.[102]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Google (2014-12-02). “What’s included in Google Apps for Work?”. Google. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
  2. Jump up^ “Article in Wired”. Wired. 2011-10-07. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
  3. Jump up^ Metz, Cade (2010-03-03). “Article in Mashable”. Mashable. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
  4. Jump up^ Metz, Cade (2014-02-21). “Article in Business Bee”. Business Bee. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  5. Jump up^ “Article in CNet”. Cnet. 2014-09-02. Retrieved 2014-09-02.
  6. Jump up^ “Big mail on campus”. Google.
  7. Jump up^ “Google Launches Hosted Communications Services”. Google.
  8. Jump up^ “Google Announces Education News at Educause”. Google.
  9. Jump up^ “Google Introduces New Business Version of Popular Hosted Applications”. Google.
  10. Jump up^ “Update on Google Wave”. The Google Wave Blog. Google. 2010-08-04.
  11. Jump up^ “Google improves Apps, offers organization clear path off Echange, Notes, etc. to Gmail”. ZDNet. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  12. Jump up^ “Google Adds Postini’s Security and Compliance Capabilities to Google Apps”. Google.
  13. Jump up^ “Google Sets Its Sites on Google Apps”. Google.
  14. Jump up^ “Use Microsoft Outlook with Google Apps for email, contacts, and calendar”. Google.
  15. Jump up^ “Google Apps is out of beta (yes, really)”. Google.
  16. ^ Jump up to:a b “Open for business: the Google Apps Marketplace”. Google.
  17. Jump up^ “Introducing Google Apps for Government”. Google.
  18. Jump up^ “Helping small businesses start and manage Google Apps for Business”. Google.
  19. Jump up^ “Google Apps Vault Brings Information Governance to Google Apps”. Google.
  20. Jump up^ “Introducing Google Drive, the newest member of Google Apps”. Google.
  21. Jump up^ “Google Drive joins the battle of the cloud”. USA Today.
  22. Jump up^ “Changes to Google Apps for business”. Google. 2012-12-06. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  23. Jump up^ “Bringing it all together for Google Apps customers: 30GB shared between Drive and Gmail”. Google.
  24. Jump up^ “Introducing the Google Apps Referral Program: Share a better way of working with customers, friends and networks”. Google.
  25. Jump up^ “Google Drive for Work”. Google.
  26. ^ Jump up to:a b “Introducing Google for Work (the artist formerly known as Enterprise)”. Google.
  27. Jump up^ “Google Product Forums”. Google.
  28. Jump up^ “Google Apps for Work Products”. Google.
  29. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Google Apps for Work Pricing”. Google.
  30. Jump up^ Metz, Cade (2014-04-01). “Article in BGR”. Wired. Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  31. Jump up^ Metz, Cade (2012-06-28). “Gmail finally blows past Hotmail to become the world’s largest email service”. Venture Beat. Retrieved 2012-06-28.
  32. Jump up^ Metz, Cade (2014-04-01). “How Gmail Happened: The Inside Story of Its Launch 10 Years Ago”. Time. Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  33. Jump up^ Metz, Cade (2014-04-01). “Gmail turns 10: Six reasons why it is the world’s most popular webmail service”. BGR. Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  34. ^ Jump up to:a b “Gmail for Work”. Google.
  35. Jump up^ “Official Google for Work Blog”. Google.
  36. ^ Jump up to:a b “Introducing Google Drive… yes, really”. Google.
  37. Jump up^ Metz, Cade (March 6, 2006). “Google Drive: What we know so far”. Tech Crunch. Retrieved 6 March 2006.
  38. Jump up^ Metz, Cade (2014-12-11). “OneDrive, Dropbox, Google Drive, and Box: Which cloud storage service is right for you?”. CNet. Retrieved 2014-12-11.
  39. Jump up^ “Google Drive for Work”. Google.
  40. Jump up^ “Google for Work products”. Google.
  41. Jump up^ “Google Announces Google Docs & Spreadsheets”. Google.
  42. Jump up^ “Official Google Apps for Work products”. Google.
  43. Jump up^ “Work with any file, on any device, any time with new Docs, Sheets, and Slides”. Google.
  44. Jump up^ Metz, Cade (2014-08-25). “Google Brings Native MS Office Editing Features To Its iOS Productivity Apps, Launches Slides For iOS”. Tech Crunch. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
  45. ^ Jump up to:a b “Google Sets Its Sites on Google Apps”. Google.
  46. Jump up^ “Google Sites now open to everyone”. Google.
  47. Jump up^ “Learn Google Apps for Work”. Google.
  48. Jump up^ “It’s about time”. Google.
  49. Jump up^ “Google Calendar for Work”. Google.
  50. ^ Jump up to:a b “Google Calendar for Work”. Google.
  51. Jump up^ “Google Calendar vs. Google Calendar for Business”. Chron.
  52. Jump up^ “Google launches Hangouts, a new unified, cross-platform messaging service for iOS, Android and Chrome”. Chron.
  53. Jump up^ “Google Hangouts”. Google.
  54. Jump up^ “Google+ Hangouts get bigger video player, screen sharing available to all”. Chron.
  55. Jump up^ “Google Hangouts for Work”. Google.
  56. Jump up^ “Making it easier to bring Hangouts to work”. Google.
  57. Jump up^ “Google Plus”. Google.
  58. ^ Jump up to:a b “Exclusive: Inside Hangouts, Google’s big fix for its messaging mess”. The Verge.
  59. Jump up^ “Google Sends Hangouts to Work, Enhances Chromebox for Meetings”. Re/code.
  60. Jump up^ “Hangouts Now Works Without Google+ Account, Becomes Part Of Google Apps For Business And Gets SLA”. Tech Crunch.
  61. Jump up^ “Even more reasons to meet face-to-face”. Google.
  62. Jump up^ “Custom status messages for Google Hangouts”. Google.
  63. Jump up^ “Introducing the Google+ project: Real-life sharing, rethought for the web”. Google.
  64. Jump up^ “Facebook’s Newest Challenger: Google Plus”. NPR.
  65. Jump up^ “Here Is The Little-Known Way Google Juices User Traffic On Google+”. Business Insider.
  66. Jump up^ “Google Plus: three years old and still failing as a social network”. ZDNet.
  67. Jump up^ “Google+ is now available with Google Apps”. Google.
  68. Jump up^ “Private conversations with restricted Google+ communities”. Google.
  69. Jump up^ “Seven Ways to Use Google+ at Work”. PC World.
  70. Jump up^ “Seven Ways to Use Google+ at Work”. PC World.
  71. Jump up^ “Google+ Is Now An Enterprise Social Network? Who Knew?”. Forbes.
  72. Jump up^ “5 Reasons Why Your Business Still Needs Google+”. Business 2 Community.
  73. Jump up^ “3 Ways Google+ Helps Your Business”. Business 2 Community.
  74. Jump up^ “Google Apps Vault Brings Information Governance to Google Apps”. Google.
  75. Jump up^ “Google Apps Vault gets targeted legal holds to let organizations keep specific information in emails”. The Next Web.
  76. Jump up^ “Official Google for Work Blog”. Google.
  77. Jump up^ “Google Apps for Work Pricing”.
  78. Jump up^ “Evaluate Google Apps for Work”. Google.
  79. ^ Jump up to:a b “Google Apps for Work Security”. Google.
  80. Jump up^ “Security and privacy from Google Apps for Work”. Google.
  81. Jump up^ “Google Launches Drive For Work With Unlimited Storage For $10/Month”. Tech Crunch.
  82. ^ Jump up to:a b “Data security in 2014: Make it more difficult for others to attack and easier for you to protect”. Google.
  83. Jump up^ “When Google Apps Fails at being a User Directory”. Google.
  84. Jump up^ “Google Reboots Its Business Software Operation as ‘Google for Work’”. Wired.
  85. Jump up^ “Working on the go gets easier with Google and Uber”. Google.
  86. Jump up^ “Official Google for Work Blog”. Google.
  87. Jump up^ “Google Apps and Drive feed the buzz at BuzzFeed”. Google.
  88. Jump up^ “Google Apps is the Perfect Fit for Design Within Reach”. Google.
  89. Jump up^ “PwC and Google: bringing transformation to work”. Google.
  90. Jump up^ “Google Apps for Work Customers”. Google.
  91. Jump up^ “Google Apps for Work Partern Referral”. Google.
  92. Jump up^ “Google launches referral program for Google Apps, offers $15 for each new user you convince to sign up”. The Next Web.
  93. Jump up^ “Introducing the Google for Work & Education Partner Program”. Google.
  94. ^ Jump up to:a b “Google Apps Marketplace overview”. Google.
  95. Jump up^ “Google Apps Marketplace: to administrators and beyond”. Google.
  96. Jump up^ “Spcieworks Google Apps”. Spiceworks.
  97. ^ Jump up to:a b “Can Google’s online offering deliver the tools you need to get things done?”. Tech Radar.
  98. Jump up^ “10 comparisons between Google Apps and Office 365”. Tech Republic.
  99. Jump up^ “Google to offer schools, students unlimited storage for free”. CNet.
  100. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Microsoft Just Made Its Google Apps Killer Much More Attractive”. Business Insider.
  101. Jump up^ “OneDrive, Dropbox, Google Drive, and Box: Which cloud storage service is right for you?”. CNet.
  102. Jump up^ “Google for Work solutions”. Google.

SEO

Search engine optimization

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine‘s unpaid results – often referred to as “natural,” “organic,” or “earned” results. In general, the earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page), and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine’s users. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search, academic search,[1] news search and industry-specific vertical search engines.

As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, what people search for, the actual search terms or keywords typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content, HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks, or inbound links, is another SEO tactic.

The plural of the abbreviation SEO can also refer to “search engine optimizers,” those who provide SEO services.

History

Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s, as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. Initially, all webmasters needed to do was to submit the address of a page, or URL, to the various engines which would send a “spider” to “crawl” that page, extract links to other pages from it, and return information found on the page to be indexed.[2] The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine’s own server, where a second program, known as an indexer, extracts various information about the page, such as the words it contains and where these are located, as well as any weight for specific words, and all links the page contains, which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date.

Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results, creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan, the phrase “search engine optimization” probably came into use in 1997. Sullivan credits Bruce Clay as being one of the first people to popularize the term.[3] On May 2, 2007,[4] Jason Gambert attempted to trademark the term SEO by convincing the Trademark Office in Arizona[5] that SEO is a “process” involving manipulation of keywords, and not a “marketing service.” The reviewing attorney basically bought his incoherent argument that while “SEO” can’t be trademarked when it refers to a generic process of manipulated keywords, it can be a service mark for providing “marketing services…in the field of computers.”

Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag, or index files in engines like ALIWEB. Meta tags provide a guide to each page’s content. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable, however, because the webmaster’s choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site’s actual content. Inaccurate, incomplete, and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches.[6] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines.[7]

By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster’s control, early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. To provide better results to their users, search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results, rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search, poor quality or irrelevant search results could lead users to find other search sources. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms, taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. Graduate students at Stanford University, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, developed “Backrub,” a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. The number calculated by the algorithm, PageRank, is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links.[8]PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web, and follows links from one page to another. In effect, this means that some links are stronger than others, as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer.

Page and Brin founded Google in 1998.[9] Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet users, who liked its simple design.[10] Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency, meta tags, headings, links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. Although PageRank was more difficult to game, webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine, and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. Many sites focused on exchanging, buying, and selling links, often on a massive scale. Some of these schemes, or link farms, involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming.[11]

By 2004, search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation. In June 2007, The New York Times’ Saul Hansell stated Google ranks sites using more than 200 different signals.[12] The leading search engines, Google, Bing, and Yahoo, do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages. Some SEO practitioners have studied different approaches to search engine optimization, and have shared their personal opinions.[13] Patents related to search engines can provide information to better understand search engines.[14]

In 2005, Google began personalizing search results for each user. Depending on their history of previous searches, Google crafted results for logged in users.[15] In 2008, Bruce Clay said that “ranking is dead” because ofpersonalized search. He opined that it would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked, because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search.[16]

In 2007, Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank.[17] On June 15, 2009, Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links. Matt Cutts, a well-known software engineer at Google, announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way, in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting.[18] As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank. In order to avoid the above, SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes, Flash and Javascript.[19]

In December 2009, Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results.[20]

On June 8, 2010 a new web indexing system called Google Caffeine was announced. Designed to allow users to find news results, forum posts and other content much sooner after publishing than before, Google caffeine was a change to the way Google updated its index in order to make things show up quicker on Google than before. According to Carrie Grimes, the software engineer who announced Caffeine for Google, “Caffeine provides 50 percent fresher results for web searches than our last index…”[21]

Google Instant, real-time-search, was introduced in late 2010 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results.[22]

In February 2011, Google announced the Panda update, which penalizes websites containing content duplicated from other websites and sources. Historically websites have copied content from one another and benefited in search engine rankings by engaging in this practice, however Google implemented a new system which punishes sites whose content is not unique.[23]

In April 2012, Google launched the Google Penguin update the goal of which was to penalize websites that used manipulative techniques to improve their rankings on the search engine.[24]

In September 2013, Google released the Google Hummingbird update, an algorithm change designed to improve Google’s natural language processing and semantic understanding of web pages.

Relationship with search engines

By 1997, search engine designers recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines, and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords. Early search engines, such as Altavista and Infoseek, adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings.[25]

In 2005, an annual conference, AIRWeb, Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web was created to bring together practitioners and researchers concerned with search engine optimisation and related topics.[26]

Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results. In 2005, the Wall Street Journal reported on a company, Traffic Power, which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients.[27] Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban.[28] Google’s Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients.[29]

Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry, and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences, chats, and seminars. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization.[30][31] Google has a Sitemaps program to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website.[32] Bing Webmaster Tools provides a way for webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds, allows users to determine the crawl rate, and track the web pages index status.

Methods

Getting indexed

Search engines use complex mathematical algorithms to guess which websites a user seeks. In this diagram, if each bubble represents a web site, programs sometimes calledspiders examine which sites link to which other sites, with arrows representing these links. Websites getting more inbound links, or stronger links, are presumed to be more important and what the user is searching for. In this example, since website B is the recipient of numerous inbound links, it ranks more highly in a web search. And the links “carry through,” such that website C, even though it only has one inbound link, has an inbound link from a highly popular site (B) while site E does not. Note: percentages are rounded.

The leading search engines, such as Google, Bing and Yahoo!, use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically. Two major directories, the Yahoo Directory and DMOZ both require manual submission and human editorial review.[33] Google offers Google Webmaster Tools, for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found, especially pages that are not discoverable by automatically following links.[34] Yahoo! formerly operated a paid submission service that guaranteed crawling for a cost per click;[35] this was discontinued in 2009.[36]

Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site. Not every page is indexed by the search engines. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled.[37]

Preventing crawling

To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes, webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots.txt file in the root directory of the domain. Additionally, a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine’s database by using a meta tag specific to robots. When a search engine visits a site, the robots.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. The robots.txt file is then parsed, and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file, it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. In March 2007, Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam.[38]

Increasing prominence

A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results. Cross linking between pages of the same website to provide more links to important pages may improve its visibility.[39] Writing content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase, so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic.[39] Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site. Adding relevant keywords to a web page’s meta data, including the title tag and meta description, will tend to improve the relevancy of a site’s search listings, thus increasing traffic. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls, using the canonical link element[40] or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page’s link popularity score.

White hat versus black hat techniques

SEO techniques can be classified into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design, and those techniques of which search engines do not approve. The search engines attempt to minimize the effect of the latter, among them spamdexing. Industry commentators have classified these methods, and the practitioners who employ them, as either white hat SEO, or black hat SEO.[41] White hats tend to produce results that last a long time, whereas black hats anticipate that their sites may eventually be banned either temporarily or permanently once the search engines discover what they are doing.[42]

An SEO technique is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines’ guidelines and involves no deception. As the search engine guidelines[30][31][43] are not written as a series of rules or commandments, this is an important distinction to note. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines, but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users, not for search engines, and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders, rather than attempting to trick the algorithm from its intended purpose. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility,[44] although the two are not identical.

Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines, or involve deception. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden, either as text colored similar to the background, in an invisible div, or positioned off screen. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine, a technique known as cloaking.

Another category sometimes used is grey hat SEO. This is in between black hat and white hat approaches where the methods employed avoid the site being penalised however do not act in producing the best content for users, rather entirely focused on improving search engine rankings.

Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods, either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines’ algorithms, or by a manual site review. One example was the February 2006 Google removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices.[45] Both companies, however, quickly apologized, fixed the offending pages, and were restored to Google’s list.[46]

As a marketing strategy

SEO is not an appropriate strategy for every website, and other Internet marketing strategies can be more effective like paid advertising through pay per click (PPC) campaigns, depending on the site operator’s goals.[47] A successful Internet marketing campaign may also depend upon building high quality web pages to engage and persuade, setting up analytics programs to enable site owners to measure results, and improving a site’sconversion rate.[48]

SEO may generate an adequate return on investment. However, search engines are not paid for organic search traffic, their algorithms change, and there are no guarantees of continued referrals. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty, a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors.[49] Search engines can change their algorithms, impacting a website’s placement, possibly resulting in a serious loss of traffic. According to Google’s CEO, Eric Schmidt, in 2010, Google made over 500 algorithm changes – almost 1.5 per day.[50] It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic.[51]

International markets

Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. The search engines’ market shares vary from market to market, as does competition. In 2003, Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches.[52] In markets outside the United States, Google’s share is often larger, and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007.[53] As of 2006, Google had an 85–90% market share in Germany.[54] While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time, there were only about five in Germany.[54] As of June 2008, the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise.[55] That market share is achieved in a number of countries.

As of 2009, there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. In most cases, when Google is not leading in a given market, it is lagging behind a local player. The most notable example markets are China, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu, Yahoo! Japan, Naver, Yandex and Seznam are market leaders.

Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages, registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market, and web hosting that provides a localIP address. Otherwise, the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same, regardless of language.[54]

Legal precedents

On October 17, 2002, SearchKing filed suit in the United States District Court, Western District of Oklahoma, against the search engine Google. SearchKing’s claim was that Google’s tactics to prevent spamdexingconstituted a tortious interference with contractual relations. On May 27, 2003, the court granted Google’s motion to dismiss the complaint because SearchKing “failed to state a claim upon which relief may be granted.”[56][57]

In March 2006, KinderStart filed a lawsuit against Google over search engine rankings. Kinderstart’s website was removed from Google’s index prior to the lawsuit and the amount of traffic to the site dropped by 70%. On March 16, 2007 the United States District Court for the Northern District of California (San Jose Division) dismissed KinderStart’s complaint without leave to amend, and partially granted Google’s motion for Rule 11sanctions against KinderStart’s attorney, requiring him to pay part of Google’s legal expenses.[58][59]

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Beel, Jöran and Gipp, Bela and Wilde, Erik (2010). “Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co.” (PDF). Journal of Scholarly Publishing. pp. 176–190. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
  2. Jump up^ Brian Pinkerton. “Finding What People Want: Experiences with the WebCrawler”(PDF). The Second International WWW Conference Chicago, USA, October 17–20, 1994. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
  3. Jump up^ Danny Sullivan (June 14, 2004). “Who Invented the Term “Search Engine Optimization”?”. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 14, 2007.See Google groups thread.
  4. Jump up^ “Trademark/Service Mark Application, Principal Register”. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  5. Jump up^ “Trade Name Certification”. State of Arizona.
  6. Jump up^ Cory Doctorow (August 26, 2001). “Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw-men of the meta-utopia”. e-LearningGuru. Archived from the original on April 9, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  7. Jump up^ Pringle, G., Allison, L., and Dowe, D. (April 1998). “What is a tall poppy among web pages?”. Proc. 7th Int. World Wide Web Conference. Retrieved May 8,2007.
  8. Jump up^ Brin, Sergey and Page, Larry (1998). “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine”. Proceedings of the seventh international conference on World Wide Web. pp. 107–117. RetrievedMay 8, 2007.
  9. Jump up^ “Google’s co-founders may not have the name recognition of say, Bill Gates, but give them time: Google hasn’t been around nearly as long as Microsoft.”. 2008-10-15.
  10. Jump up^ Thompson, Bill (December 19, 2003). “Is Google good for you?”. BBC News. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
  11. Jump up^ Zoltan Gyongyi and Hector Garcia-Molina (2005). “Link Spam Alliances”(PDF). Proceedings of the 31st VLDB Conference, Trondheim, Norway. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  12. Jump up^ Hansell, Saul (June 3, 2007). “Google Keeps Tweaking Its Search Engine”. New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  13. Jump up^ Danny Sullivan (September 29, 2005). “Rundown On Search Ranking Factors”.Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  14. Jump up^ Christine Churchill (November 23, 2005). “Understanding Search Engine Patents”. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  15. Jump up^ “Google Personalized Search Leaves Google Labs”. searchenginewatch.com. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
  16. Jump up^ “Will Personal Search Turn SEO On Its Ear? | WebProNews”. www.webpronews.com. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
  17. Jump up^ “8 Things We Learned About Google PageRank”. www.searchenginejournal.com. Retrieved August 17,2009.
  18. Jump up^ “PageRank sculpting”. Matt Cutts. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
  19. Jump up^ “Google Loses “Backwards Compatibility” On Paid Link Blocking & PageRank Sculpting”. searchengineland.com. Retrieved August 17, 2009.
  20. Jump up^ “Personalized Search for everyone”. Google. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
  21. Jump up^ “Our new search index: Caffeine”. Google: Official Blog. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  22. Jump up^ “Relevance Meets Real Time Web”. Google Blog.
  23. Jump up^ “Google Search Quality Updates”. Google Blog.
  24. Jump up^ “What You Need to Know About Google’s Penguin Update”. Inc.com.
  25. Jump up^ Laurie J. Flynn (November 11, 1996). “Desperately Seeking Surfers”. New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  26. Jump up^ “AIRWeb”. Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web, annual conference. Retrieved Oct 4, 2012.
  27. Jump up^ David Kesmodel (September 22, 2005). “Sites Get Dropped by Search Engines After Trying to ‘Optimize’ Rankings”. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
  28. Jump up^ Adam L. Penenberg (September 8, 2005). “Legal Showdown in Search Fracas”.Wired Magazine. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  29. Jump up^ Matt Cutts (February 2, 2006). “Confirming a penalty”. mattcutts.com/blog. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  30. ^ Jump up to:a b “Google’s Guidelines on Site Design”. google.com. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
  31. ^ Jump up to:a b “Bing Webmaster Guidelines”. bing.com. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
  32. Jump up^ “Sitemaps”. google.com. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  33. Jump up^ “Submitting To Directories: Yahoo & The Open Directory”. Search Engine Watch. March 12, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  34. Jump up^ “What is a Sitemap file and why should I have one?”. google.com. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
  35. Jump up^ “Submitting To Search Crawlers: Google, Yahoo, Ask & Microsoft’s Live Search”. Search Engine Watch. March 12, 2007. RetrievedMay 15, 2007.
  36. Jump up^ “Yahoo Search Submit – Closed in Q4 of 2009”. rickramos.com. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
  37. Jump up^ Cho, J., Garcia-Molina, H. (1998). “Efficient crawling through URL ordering”. Proceedings of the seventh conference on World Wide Web, Brisbane, Australia. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  38. Jump up^ “Newspapers Amok! New York Times Spamming Google? LA Times Hijacking Cars.com?”.Search Engine Land. May 8, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  39. ^ Jump up to:a b “The Most Important SEO Strategy”. clickz.com. ClickZ. RetrievedApril 18, 2010.
  40. Jump up^ “Bing – Partnering to help solve duplicate content issues – Webmaster Blog – Bing Community”. www.bing.com. Retrieved October 30, 2009.
  41. Jump up^ Andrew Goodman. “Search Engine Showdown: Black hats vs. White hats at SES”. SearchEngineWatch. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  42. Jump up^ Jill Whalen (November 16, 2004). “Black Hat/White Hat Search Engine Optimization”. searchengineguide.com. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  43. Jump up^ “What’s an SEO? Does Google recommend working with companies that offer to make my site Google-friendly?”. google.com. RetrievedApril 18, 2007.
  44. Jump up^ Andy Hagans (November 8, 2005). “High Accessibility Is Effective Search Engine Optimization”. A List Apart. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  45. Jump up^ Matt Cutts (February 4, 2006). “Ramping up on international webspam”. mattcutts.com/blog. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  46. Jump up^ Matt Cutts (February 7, 2006). “Recent reinclusions”. mattcutts.com/blog. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  47. Jump up^ “What SEO Isn’t”. blog.v7n.com. June 24, 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
  48. Jump up^ Melissa Burdon (March 13, 2007). “The Battle Between Search Engine Optimization and Conversion: Who Wins?”. Grok.com. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  49. Jump up^ Andy Greenberg (April 30, 2007). “Condemned To Google Hell”. Forbes. Archived from the original on May 2, 2007. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  50. Jump up^ Matt McGee (September 21, 2011). “Schmidt’s testimony reveals how Google tests algorithm changes”.
  51. Jump up^ Jakob Nielsen (January 9, 2006). “Search Engines as Leeches on the Web”. useit.com. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
  52. Jump up^ Graham, Jefferson (August 26, 2003). “The search engine that could”. USA Today. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  53. Jump up^ Greg Jarboe (February 22, 2007). “Stats Show Google Dominates the International Search Landscape”. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  54. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mike Grehan (April 3, 2006). “Search Engine Optimizing for Europe”. Click. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
  55. Jump up^ Jack Schofield (June 10, 2008). “Google UK closes in on 90% market share”. London: Guardian. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
  56. Jump up^ “Search King, Inc. v. Google Technology, Inc., CIV-02-1457-M” (PDF). docstoc.com. May 27, 2003. Retrieved May 23, 2008.
  57. Jump up^ Stefanie Olsen (May 30, 2003). “Judge dismisses suit against Google”. CNET. RetrievedMay 10, 2007.
  58. Jump up^ “Technology & Marketing Law Blog: KinderStart v. Google Dismissed—With Sanctions Against KinderStart’s Counsel”. blog.ericgoldman.org. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
  59. Jump up^ “Technology & Marketing Law Blog: Google Sued Over Rankings—KinderStart.com v. Google”. blog.ericgoldman.org. Retrieved June 23, 2008.

Google Analytics

Google Analytics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Google Analytics
Google Analytics logo
Web address www.google.com/analytics
Slogan Turning data insights into action
Commercial? Yes
Type of site
web analytics
Registration Required
Owner Google
Launched November 2005
Current status Active

Google Analytics is a freemium web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic.[1] Google launched the service in November 2005 after acquiring Urchin.[2] Google Analytics is now the most widely used web analytics service on the Internet.[3]

History

Google acquired Urchin Software Corp. in April 2005.[2] Google’s service was developed from Urchin on Demand. The system also brings ideas from Adaptive Path, whose product, Measure Map, was acquired and used in the redesign of Google Analytics in 2006.[4] Google continued to sell the standalone, installable Urchin WebAnalytics Software through a network of value-added resellers until discontinuation on March 28, 2012.[5][6]

The Google-branded version was rolled out in November 2005 to anyone who wished to sign up. However due to extremely high demand for the service, new sign-ups were suspended only a week later. As capacity was added to the system, Google began using a lottery-type invitation-code model. Prior to August 2006 Google was sending out batches of invitation codes as server availability permitted; since mid-August 2006 the service has been fully available to all users – whether they use Google for advertising or not.

The latest version of Google Analytics tracking code is known as the asynchronous tracking code,[7] which Google claims, is significantly more sensitive and accurate, and is able to track even very short activities on the website. The previous version delayed page loading and so, for performance reasons, it was generally placed just before the </body> body close HTML tag. The new code can be placed between the <head>...</head>HTML head tags because, once triggered, it runs in parallel with page loading.

In April 2011, Google announced the availability of a new version of Google Analytics, featuring multiple dashboards, more options of custom reports and a new interface design.[8] This version was later updated with some other features such as real-time analytics and goal flow charts.[9][10]

Features

Integrated with AdWords, users can now review online campaigns by tracking landing page quality and conversions (goals). Goals might include sales, lead generation, viewing a specific page, or downloading a particular file.

Google Analytics’ approach is to show high-level, dashboard-type data for the casual user, and more in-depth data further into the report set. Google Analytics analysis can identify poorly performing pages with techniques such as funnel visualization, where visitors came from (referrers), how long they stayed and their geographical position. It also provides more advanced features, including custom visitor segmentation.

Google Analytics e-commerce reporting can track sales activity and performance. The e-commerce reports shows a site’s transactions, revenue, and many other commerce-related metrics.

On September 29, 2011, Google Analytics launched Real Time analytics.[11]

A user can have 50 site profiles. Each profile generally corresponds to one website. It is limited to sites which have a traffic of fewer than 5 million pageviews per month (roughly 2 pageviews per second), unless the site is linked to an AdWords campaign.[12]

Google Analytics includes Google Website Optimizer, rebranded as Google Analytics Content Experiments.[13][14]

Google Analytics Cohort analysis feature helps understand the behavior of component groups of users apart from your user population. It is very much beneficial to marketers and analysts for successful implementation of Marketing Strategy

Technology

Google Analytics is implemented with “page tags“. A page tag, in this case called the Google Analytics Tracking Code is a snippet of JavaScript code that the website owner adds to every page of the website. The tracking code runs in the client browser when the client browses the page (if JavaScript is enabled in the browser) and collects visitor data and sends it to a Google data collection server as part of a request for a web beacon.[15]

The tracking code loads a larger JavaScript file from the Google webserver and then sets variables with the user’s account number. The larger file (currently known as ga.js) is typically 18 KB. The file does not usually have to be loaded, however, due to browser caching. Assuming caching is enabled in the browser, it downloads ga.js only once at the start of the visit. Furthermore, as all websites that implement Google Analytics with the ga.js code use the same master file from Google, a browser that has previously visited any other website running Google Analytics will already have the file cached on their machine.

In addition to transmitting information to a Google server, the tracking code sets first party cookies (If cookies are enabled in the browser) on each visitor’s computer. These cookies store anonymous information such as whether the visitor has been to the site before (new or returning visitor), the timestamp of the current visit, and the referrer site or campaign that directed the visitor to the page (e.g., search engine, keywords, banner, or email).

If the visitor arrived at the site by clicking on a link tagged with Urchin Traffic Monitor (UTM) codes such as:

http://toWebsite.com?utm_source=fromWebsite&utm_medium=bannerAd&utm_campaign=fundraiser2012

the tag values are passed to the database too.[16]

Limitations

In addition, Google Analytics for Mobile Package allows Google Analytics to be applied to mobile websites. The Mobile Package contains server-side tracking codes that use PHP, JavaServer Pages, ASP.NET, or Perl for its server-side language.[17]

However, many ad filtering programs and extensions (such as Firefox’s Adblock and NoScript) can block the Google Analytics Tracking Code. This prevents some traffic and users from being tracked, and leads to holes in the collected data. Also, privacy networks like Tor will mask the user’s actual location and present inaccurate geographical data. Some users do not have JavaScript-enabled/capable browsers or turn this feature off. However, these limitations are considered small—affecting only a small percentage of visits.[18]

The largest potential impact on data accuracy comes from users deleting or blocking Google Analytics cookies.[19] Without cookies being set, Google Analytics cannot collect data. Any individual web user can block or delete cookies resulting in the data loss of those visits for Google Analytics users. Website owners can encourage users not to disable cookies, for example, by making visitors more comfortable using the site through posting a privacy policy.

These limitations affect the majority of web analytics tools which use page tags (usually JavaScript programs) embedded in web pages to collect visitor data, store it in cookies on the visitor’s computer, and transmit it to a remote database by pretending to load a tiny graphic “beacon“.

Another limitation of Google Analytics for large websites is the use of sampling in the generation of many of its reports. To reduce the load on their servers and to provide users with a relatively quick response for their query, Google Analytics limits reports to 500,000 randomly sampled visits at the profile level for its calculations. While margins of error are indicated for the visits metric, margins of error are not provided for any other metrics in the Google Analytics reports. For small segments of data, the margin of error can be very large.[20]

Performance concerns

There have been several online discussions about the impact of Google Analytics on site performance.[21][22][23] However, Google introduced asynchronous JavaScript code in December 2009 to reduce the risk of slowing the loading of pages tagged with the ga.js script.[24][25]

Privacy issues

Due to its ubiquity, Google Analytics raises some privacy concerns. Whenever someone visits a web site that uses Google Analytics, if JavaScript is enabled in the browser, then Google tracks that visit via the user’s IP address in order to determine the user’s approximate geographic location. (To meet German legal requirements, Google Analytics can anonymize the IP address.[26])

Google has also released a browser plugin that turns off data about a page visit being sent to Google.[27][28] Since this plug-in is produced and distributed by Google itself, it has met much discussion and criticism. Furthermore, the realisation of Google scripts tracking user behaviours has spawned the production of multiple, often open-source, browser plug-ins to reject tracking cookies.[29] These plug-ins offer the user a choice, whether to allow Google Analytics (for example) to track his/her activities. However, partially because of new European privacy laws, most modern browsers allow users to reject tracking cookies, though Flash cookiescan be a separate problem again.

It has been anecdotally reported that behind proxy servers and multiple firewalls that errors can occur changing time stamps and registering invalid searches.[30]

Webmasters who seek to mitigate Google Analytics specific privacy issues can employ a number of alternatives having their backends hosted on their own machines. Until its discontinuation, an example of such a product was Urchin WebAnalytics Software from Google itself.

On Jan. 20, 2015, the Associated Press reported in an article titled: “Government health care website quietly sharing personal data” that HealthCare.gov is providing access to enrollees personal data to private companies that specialize in advertising. Google Analytics was mentioned in that article.[31]

Support and training

Google offers free Google Analytics IQ Lessons,[32] Google Analytics certification test,[33] free Help Center[34] FAQ and Google Groups forum[35] for official Google Analytics product support. New product features are announced on the Google Analytics Blog.[36] Enterprise support is provided through Google Analytics Certified Partners.[37]

APIs for third-party application support

The Google Analytics API[38] is used by third parties to build custom applications[39] such as reporting tools. Many such applications exist. One was built to run on iOS (Apple) devices and is featured in Apple’s app store.[40] There are some third party products that also provide Google Analytic based tracking.[41]

Popularity

Google Analytics is the most widely used website statistics service,[3] currently in use on around 55% of the 10,000 most popular websites.[42] Another market share analysis claims that Google Analytics is used at around 49.95% of the top 1,000,000 websites (as currently ranked by Alexa).[43]

Google Analytics is used by 66.2% of the 10,000 most popular websites ordered by popularity, as reported by BuiltWith in August, 2013.[44] In May 2008, Pingdom released a survey stating that 161 (or 32%) out of 500 biggest sites globally according to their Alexa rank were using Google Analytics.[45][46]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ “Get the Power of Google Analytics: Now available in Standard or Premium, whatever your needs are Google Analytics can help.”. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b “Our history in depth”. Google. Retrieved 2012-07-16.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b “Usage of traffic analysis tools for websites”. W3Techs. Retrieved 2009-12-10.
  4. Jump up^ Official Google Blog: Here comes Measure Map
  5. Jump up^ Muret, Paul (January 20, 2012). “The End of an Era for Urchin Software”. Google Analytics. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
  6. Jump up^ Muret, Paul. “The End of an Era for Urchin Software”. Google Analytics. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
  7. Jump up^ “Asynchronous Tracking Code”.
  8. Jump up^ “The New Google Analytics Available to Everyone”.
  9. Jump up^ “Introducing Flow Visualization: visualizing visitor flow”.
  10. Jump up^ “What’s happening on your site right now?”.
  11. Jump up^ http://analytics.blogspot.com/2011/09/whats-happening-on-your-site-right-now.html
  12. Jump up^ Google Analytics Help: Does Google Analytics have a pageview limit?
  13. Jump up^ “Website Optimizer”. Google. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
  14. Jump up^ Tzemah, Nir. “Helping to Create Better Websites: Introducing Content Experiments”. Google Analytics Blog. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
  15. Jump up^ “Google Developers Tracking Code Overview”.
  16. Jump up^ “Google Analytics: UTM Link Tagging Explained”.
  17. Jump up^ “Google Analytics for Mobile package”.
  18. Jump up^ EU and US JavaScript Disabled Index numbers + Web Analytics data collection impact
  19. Jump up^ “Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth”. – a web analytics accuracy whitepaper
  20. Jump up^ “Segmentation Options in Google Analytics”.
  21. Jump up^ Does Google Analytics Slow down page loading?
  22. Jump up^ Google Analytics Code is Slowing Down My Site
  23. Jump up^ Is Google Analytics Slow or Not?
  24. Jump up^ Google Analytics Launches Asynchronous Tracking
  25. Jump up^ Making the Web Faster
  26. Jump up^ “Tracking Code: The _gat Global Object”. Google. January 24, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  27. Jump up^ Albanesius, Chloe (May 25, 2010). “Opt Out of Google Analytics Data Gathering With New Beta Tool”. PC Magazine.
  28. Jump up^ “Greater choice and transparency for Google Analytics”. Google. May 25, 2010.
  29. Jump up^ “The NoScript Firefox extension provides extra protection for Firefox, Flock, Seamonkey and other mozilla-based browsers”.
  30. Jump up^ Greenberg, Andy (December 11, 2008). “The Virus Filters”. Forbes.
  31. Jump up^ http://bigstory.ap.org/article/31490a20926d4ed3b98ff2d0ed8fc81d/new-privacy-concerns-over-governments-health-care-website
  32. Jump up^ Google Analytics IQ Lessons
  33. Jump up^ Google Analytics certification test
  34. Jump up^ Google Analytics Help Center
  35. Jump up^ Official Google Analytics product forum
  36. Jump up^ Official Google Analytics Blog
  37. Jump up^ Google Analytics Certified Partners
  38. Jump up^ Google Analytics API
  39. Jump up^ Google Analytics Applications
  40. Jump up^ “Analytics by Net Conversion”.
  41. Jump up^ Google Analytics Tracking for API
  42. Jump up^ “Google Biz Chief: Over 10M Websites Now Using Google Analytics”. TechCrunch. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
  43. Jump up^ “Google Analytics Market Share”. MetricMail. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
  44. Jump up^ Google Analytics Usage Statistics
  45. Jump up^ “Google Analytics dominates the top 500 websites”. Pingdom. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
  46. Jump up^ “Image Google Analytics terms”.